Tuesday, April 2, 2019
Closing The Gap In Educational Attainment
Closing The disruption In commandmental AttainmentClosing the fault in informational growing amid complaisant conferences has been wide ack right absentledged as a pressing concern of national importanceIntroductionEducation is the closely powerful weapon which you can riding habit to salmagundi the world.Nelson Mandela grew up in a country divided by a take upheid. A black valet de chambre in a country whither a white nonage ruled, he had a vision for S come onh Africa to be iodin nation no matter of race. In 1994 he became the first black president of S come out of the closeth Africa testament, thusly, that barriers, of twain kind, should non be reason for or an apology for lack of skill or transaction of every(prenominal) kind and, that barriers can be totally overcome.It is wide agreed that on that speckle be numerous barriers to commandal contactment and complaisant comprehension body body, among them Special Educational Needs (SEN)1and dis energy, Ethnicity and English as an Additional Language, and sexual practice to name provided a few. The aim of this search nonetheless, is to look at just one of the barriers faced in this country, penury, and to look at how scholarly persons at bottom this social theme be affected and how scantness affects their developmental achievement, more thanover, the essay provide look briefly at the evolution of inclusive study and what is newly being addressed by this and subsequent governments in indian lodge that schoolchilds, heedless of considerateness can founder impactity in direction. consistence of essayIn order to yoke distress with schoolingal achievement and attainment jailbreaks, a bear outcloth to indigence and social inclusion at bottom preparation leave be outlined followed by the first objet dart of the analysis which will look at the historical overview of inclusive genteelness, current constitution and guidance and its contact on mi nority groups the second function of the analysis will examine the effects of distress and how, in particular, pupils entitle to FSMs2impact on the breach in educational attainment comp atomic number 18d against barbarianren non entitled to FSMs. The final level of the analysis will look at the importance of narrowing the gap and the introduction of the twenty-first Century School.What is scantness?At this point it is obligatory to note that, through investigate, it became app atomic number 18nt that at that place is an un go on and infinite definition about what poverty is and how it should be measured. However, most of the research leads to an agreement that poverty is to be related to in scathe of typical bread and just nowter standards within the UK and the following definition is widely verit fitIndividuals, families and groups in the population can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the types of diet, participate in the activities, and save the flavortime conditions and amenities which be customary, or argon at least widely encouraged and ap proved, in the societies in which they belong.P Townsend, meagreness in the unify Kingdom a survey of household resources and standards of living, Penguin, 1979, p31The most crucial point make to a higher(prenominal) fanny and which is the main cause of poverty is resources to emphasise to a greater extent clearly, the main cause of poverty is insufficient income/unemployment which, for adults with kidskinren directly impacts on them and their closelybeing. Although the UK has a musical arrangement of benefits which should protect families with tikeren from poverty, these as well atomic number 18 deemed as too low.In relation to this, it accepted that whilst adults do not choose for themselves the road of poverty, for pip-squeakren of parents living in poverty there is no alternative and they are consequently not just children but could be described as victim s of circumstance. Poverty is not just about going without it is about being strip of equality in areas such as health, housing and respect and, in the study of children, education.In conjunction with the definition ( preceding(prenominal)) the DCSF (2009) goes on to describe child poverty alone(predicate) as sister poverty nub outgrowth up in a household with low income. Research has shown that these children will face a greater risk of having poor health, being overt to crime and failing to reach their full emf. It way they miss out on cultivate trips, do not possess adequate winter clothing and arent able to enjoy leisure activities with their peers. As a result, their education suffers making it difficult to get the qualifications they postulate to move on to sustainable, well-paid jobs. This limits their potential to earn the money desireed to contain their own families in subsequent life, and so a cycle of poverty is cookd.www.dcsf.gov.uk/ all(prenominal)childm atters/strategy/parents/childpoverty/childpoverty/What is Social inclusion?As with poverty, in order to connexion social inclusion with educational achievement and attainment gaps, a background and understanding of the issues pertaining to social inclusion need to be outlined.The edge social exclusion is a term in the main used to describe what can happen to people who are subject to the most severe problems, and are indeed no chronic soci in ally included. As celebrated above, children have no choice of background they are born into it and consequently find themselves in poverty as a result of their birth circumstance. For a child not to be socially included brings consequences above and beyond stinting poverty alone.It is generally considered that to be socially excluded as a young and impressionable child can have far reaching effects detrimental to both education and health therefore, to surmise, to be socially excluded is to face exclusion not just economically but soci ally and academically too.http//www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/social_exclusion_task_force/context.aspxHistorical development of inclusive insurance policy guidanceBearing in mind the in the lead points, it is necessary now focus on how this and previous governments have act to overcome some of these issues through inclusive education. It should to a fault be noted that whilst this essay is focussing, in the main, on the impact of poverty on educational achievement, the roots of inclusive education lay predominantly with an another(prenominal) minority group, children with learning difficulties/ extra educational look at (SEN). However, as acknowledged above through circumstance, pupils from families who are deemed as in poverty have now been identify as a group who are under achieving academically and, therefore, as with pupils with SEN are a recognised minority group for which an inclusive education should benefit.Inclusion is not a new idea and in fact has its roots at the turn of the last century where educationalists, in particular child welfare pioneer Elizabeth Burgwin, dictum neither the office nor virtue in, what was then single out education and that adaptations could be do to quotidian schools in order to educate all children, whatever their ability or circumstance, together, however, there was another opinion that children could be categorised according to their ability and taught in special schools. These were children who, in the words of the School Board for capital of the United Kingdom (1904) were children who could not be taught in ordinary schools. (Thomas, Walker and Webb, 1998)It became accepted that segregated education/special schools was the safe and sensible way forward to suit the needs of children with SEN further, this format of schooling safeguarded the education of mainstream pupils in ordinary schools, indeed the 1944 Education Act scripted an extremely segregative post war education system. It was not until the mid-1960s when evidence showed lack of success in the system that opinions began to change and education looked toward integration and inclusion (Thomas et al., 1998).Given then that the purpose of inclusion within education is that pupils with SEN are integrate into mainstream education it is important here to note the difference surrounded by integration and inclusion. The term Integration was introduced in 1978 in the Warnock Report and referred to the idea of integrating children with SEN into a common educational simulation. The idea has since giveed to include all children, not just those with an identified SEN, but children from all minority groups regardless of gender, ethnicity or circumstance poverty so that a fully inclusive education should be fully inclusive of all children and is seen to embrace diversity. (Warnock Report special educational needs 1978 chapter 7) (House of Commons subscribe to Committee on Education and Skills Third Report 2006) Clarification of inclusion p olicy Defining inclusion p58).Inclusive educationPromoting excellence in teaching and tackling disadvantage demands we personalise teaching and learning and back strong, advance(a) leadership in schoolsEd Balls, Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families July 2007 present3electronic countermeasures Speech to the National Childrens Bureau, 23rd July, 2007The principle and practices of inclusive education therefore suggests that all pupils in a school, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any(prenominal) area, become part of the school community that they are included in the feeling of belonging among other pupils, teachers, and set up stave further, schools have a legal responsibility to educate all regardless of gender, ethnicity or circumstance in mainstream schools.Breaking the link (DSCF, 2009) identified that a FSM pupil is also more apparent to have been identified with special educational needs (SEN) and will be more likely to have a overcharge4sta tement or categorised as School Action or SA+, it is possible that this group will also be of a group of BEM or BESD5which have also been identified as an under acting social group.It is generally considered that there is a relationship in the midst of these factors and interventions such as personalised learning, as identified within the QCA frame sue for inclusion, is indispensable to adhere to in order for progress. For these identified groups, inclusion is not inescapably just understanding that every pupil will not be working on the same learning objectives as every other pupil within that group but that the pedagogy will be about recognising where differentiation would be appropriate in order to support and accommodate the different learning needs and styles of the social/learning group and that a detailed approach to monitoring their improvement is in place in order that targets whitethorn be stretched and met.Personalised learning (differentiation) therefore, will be se veralise to lifting achievement and therefore should be a primaeval component to narrowing the gap and working towards a culture where a childs chances of success are not limited by their socio-economic background, gender, ethnicity or any stultification or circumstance.Working within the inclusive framework however should not be viewed as a barrier for either pupil or staff inclusion needs to be viewed as a continuing process of breaking down barriers and narrowing the gap to educational attainment for all children and young people.There are a quash of laws addressing discrimination in education and therefore support inclusive education in the UK. Arguably, the most important piece of legislation passed in new-fashioned age is the Every Child Matters (electronic countermeasures) policy which, launched in 2003, was published aboard the formal response to the report into the death of Victoria Climbi6and gave rise to the 2004 Childrens act. electronic countermeasures covers chil dren and young adults up to the age of 19 (or 24 for those with disabilities) and is the Governments aim is for every child, whatever their background or circumstance, to have the support needed toBe healthyStay safeEnjoy and achieveMake a positive contributionAchieve economic well-beingThe ECM policy focussed on Inclusive Education Equality of Opportunity and dictated high on the agenda 3 main areasHuman Rights Children have a right to learn and play together, they should not be discriminated against and inclusion is concerned with improving schools for both pupils and staff alikeEqual Opportunities in Education Children do soften in inclusive settings (academically and socially), they should not need to be separated in order to achieve equal academic status and inclusive education is a more effective use of resourcesSocial Opportunities inclusive education is on part of inclusion in society, children need to be involved with all their peers.Assuming then that ECM and the 200 4 Childrens act are supporting and sanctioning inclusion, it is interesting to note that there is evidence to suggest, through the attainment gap, that social minority groups, despite progress and the inclusion and integration advocated in the Warnock Report, are legato under achieving and, that the notion of inclusive education is facilitate discussed as though it applies only to children with an identified SEN and is not taking account of all social minority groups, but as identified in the baron for Inclusion below, it does, in fact, have a much wider scope, inclusion in education involves (Booth and Ainscow 2000)Valuing all students and staff equally.Increasing the participation of students in, and reducing their exclusion from, the cultures, curricula and communities of local schools.Restructuring the cultures, policies and practices in schools so that they respond to the diversity of students in the locality.Reducing barriers to learning and participation for all students , not only those with impairments or those who are categorised as having special educational needs.Learning from attempts to overcome barriers to the access and participation of particular students to gravel changes for the benefit of students more widely.Viewing the difference between students as resources to support learning, rather than as problems to be overcome.Acknowledging the right of students to an education in their locality. alter schools for staff as well as for students.Emphasising the role of schools in grammatical construction community and developing values, as well as in increase achievement.Fostering mutually sustaining relationships between schools and communities.Poverty and the effects on educationIt is the aim of this and subsequent governments to raise achievement for all pupils and to break the link between disadvantage poverty and low educational attainment.In 1999, the then government plight to halve child poverty by 2010 and eradicate it by 2020, in res ponse to this, in 2008 the government published a written report refinement Child Poverty Making it Happen 2008 underlining their commitment to ensure not just that each successive generation is able to gain bring out jobs, but that everyone has the chance to achieve their potential, no matter what their background, further the paper announced that a child poverty Bill will be introduced in 2009.The Child Poverty Act 20107ensures that sustained action moldiness be taken to tackle child poverty by this, and subsequentlylife, governments, by devolved administrations, and by local government and their partners. The act sets targets relating to the eradication of child poverty, and to snitch other provision about child poverty. The Bill provides a statutory basis to the commitment made in 1999 and to create a framework in which to monitor progress at a national and local level.Relevant to poverty and education however, is section 26 of the act which makes an amendment to the of t he Education Act 1996 and gives the Secretary of State an order-making power to extend eligibility for free school meals (FSMs) if the child meets prescribed conditions and the childs parent is in notice of a prescribed benefit or allowance. (Child Poverty Act, 2010)Research carried out by the Joseph Rowntree tooshie in 2007 reinforced that the links between poverty and education were clear but complicated and that to break the established relationship between poverty and poor educational outcomes required a change to the underlying structures (Raffo, Dyson, Gunter, Hall, Jones, Kalambouka JRF A Review of research on the links between education and Poverty, kinfolk 2007).Since then and with the advent of the Child Poverty Act and the End Child Poverty Campaign, inroads have been made and some 500,000 children have been lifted out of poverty8however, there are still currently 4 one thousand thousand children in the UK living in poverty, as defined above, which equates to an overw helming 30% of children all within the UK, further, the UK has one of the worst rates of child poverty in the industrialised world.It could be argued therefore that poverty has the ability to smudge the potential and opportunity of a child and therefore limit the life chances of the child. Evidence suggests that poverty has the capability of shaping a childs development originally reaching the age of 2 a child from a poorer family is more likely to be showing lower levels of attainment than that of a child from a break out off family and that children growing up in poverty are more likely to leave school at 16 with few qualifications (End Child Poverty 2010).In the foreword to Removing Barriers to Achievement (DfES, 2004) a set of specific educational goals were expressed. Primarily, education is targeted as a inwardness to integrate individuals into society and to teach them the skills necessary to participate contribute and achieve their potential. Therefore it can be assume d that the notion of inclusive education is a staple fibre human right of every child regardless of circumstance.Given then that the opportunity for full time education is lendable for all and, that under international human rights law (and, in particular, Articles 28 and 29 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) which cover the right to education), the UK has an cartel to provide inclusive education for all children. (UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989)If it is the case then, that the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively on the basis of equal opportunity (Article 28), it is interesting to note that on intermediate poorer children score less well on a range of educational measures such as reading tests in early years and GCSE results in secondary education, highlighting the plight of poverty in education.With the statement made in the Ending Child Poverty document to ensure not just that each successive generation is able to gain better jobs, but that everyone has the chance to achieve their potential, no matter what their background it must follow, therefore, that part of the issue lies in education as the path to a better job lies with qualifications.During the last 10 years schools, nationwide, have benefited from government investiture and statistics show that the attainment gap is closing however, evidence shows that there is still a link between family income and achievement. Approximately 15% of all pupils are entitled to FSMs but as demonstrated below, these pupils are less likely to get 5 good ACEM9compared to those pupils not in receipt of FSM. For that reason, poverty and deprivation remain an ongoing area of concern. (DCSF Breaking the Link, 2009)The importance then of FSMs for eligible pupils should not be under estimated as a means to closing the gap in educational attainment as, to refer back to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), article 27 state s that no child in the UK should go hungry.Abraham Maslow is known for establishing the theory of a hierarchy of needs, which places, in a pyramid, the order basic requirements need for motivation. At the bottom, are the physiologic requirements which, although basic, we will not function comfortably without. The basic human need is for food, water and sleep. The middle of the pyramid deals with the emotion and at the very go is self fulfilment. Using this theory illustrates and reinforces the importance of FSMs for pupils eligible as without their basic need met pupils will not function to the best of their ability as demonstrated below.Assuming then that, a child is fed, research has shown that there is a significant and immediate effect of diet on behaviour, denseness and cognitive ability. Areas directly relating to educational attainment affected by maintenance have been identified asDevelopmental disorders e.g. dyslexia and dyspraxia,MemoryConcentration intuitionAttention spanAttention-Deficit-Hyperactivity DisorderAggressionAchievement(Sorhaindo, A. Feinstein, L. 2006 What is the relationship between child nutrition and school outcomes? Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report No 18. Centre for Research of Wider Benefits of Learning) p 7, 11.If it is the case then that nutrition has a clear impact on the deed of a pupil, it must therefore be of prime importance to ensure that all pupils entitled to FSM are in receipt of them. In addition to the above, nutrition is also believed to impact upon behaviour, which has the potential also to affect school performance and interaction with peers, and agree self-esteem (Sorhaindo et.al., 2006)However, research carried out for the DCSF by the Key Stage 2 4 National Indicator Set has shown that where pupils are in receipt of FSM academic attainment is lower at every key symbolise (as the focus group identified is secondary pupils, relevant statistics only are identified). By the sheer fact that a pupil i s entitled to FSM indicates that they are from a family whose parents or carers are in receipt of benefit and are therefore are on low income and are entitled to have got to their local authority to claim FSMs.The use of the Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) is used in order to determine FSM eligibility. This however, this is by no means a perfect system, as it misses out children from families who do not hope for all the benefit to which they are entitled in so doing pushes the family further into economic chaos as lunches that need not necessarily be paid for now become, unnecessarily, part of the family budget. (DCSF Deprivation and Education 2009)An attainment gap (measured by pupils entitled to FSM) is measured at each key interpret it begins at key stage 1 and increases at each key stage through education. By the end of key stage 4, research has shown that there was a 29 percentage point gap between FSM and non FSM pupils in English and a 28 percentage poi nt gap in maths. This equates to a non FSM pupil having over three times the odds of achieving an A*-C grade in these subjects compared to an FSM pupil.In 2007 Only 21% of FSM pupils achieved 5 ACEM10, compared to 49% of non FSM pupils. This figure had narrowed slightly from the statistics available for 2003, whereby a non FSM pupil had 3.8 times the odds of achieving 5+ACEM, but this ratio has fallen over time to just 3.1 in 2007. (DCSF Deprivation and Education 2009).With a link in educational attainment having been identified and linked to amongst others, poverty and FSMs it is necessary to look at how this gap can be narrowed for as long as poverty exists in childhood there will be an increase in the risk of adult poverty. Intergenerational cycles of poverty are not unbreakable or inevitable, but changes need to be implement or there will be a risk that, in future years, the gap in attainment will impact on society, as there will be children leaving education with fewer skills required by employers when entering into the workforce, which will ultimately hinder economic growth.There is evidence to suggest that poverty need not be the cause to achievement or attainment. Research carried out by Jason Strelitz, policy advisor on UK child poverty for Save the Children, showed that with successful pecuniary and policy intervention by national government poverty as a key barrier to educational attainment can be eliminated (Jason Strelitz, The Guardian Newspaper, Thursday 21 August 2008).It has been shown and is acknowledged that FSMs are a clear indicators of performance however, in London in 2007, the average attainment gap of children on FSM and non FSMs was 27 percentage points, the gap in performance between children on FSM in the best authority and the worst was wider still 37 percentage points suggesting that it is not FSM in isolation alone that is seen as a barrier but geography and postcode. To illustrate two secernate London boroughs Kensington and Chelsea, with few children on FSM, besides Tower Hamlets, who had the highest proportion of children on FSM anywhere in the country. In 1998 Tower Hamlets ranked as one of lowest-performing governance in the country for educational attainment 10 years later their results were above average across the board and, for the poorest children among the very best. It appeared the answer for Tower Hamlets was investment. During the 10 year period identified, investment and educational initiatives were cogitate on disadvantaged areas and the results were outstanding. With the exception of one, all of the 30 local authorities that were identified saw improvement in their GCSE attainment since 1998. All, bar one, had above average per-pupil funding. (Strelitz, 2008).This clearly demonstrates how investment in education can work to narrow the gap in attainment and that poverty, is not necessarily a barrier to education. However, it should be remembered that the investment has been made in the educational system/framework not the individual and that the children themselves, due to family circumstance, are still really in poverty although the opportunity of a good/better education has been afforded them and which will be the key to their future and the opportunity for them to move on into higher education or employment giving them the prospect of breaking intergenerational cycles of poverty.It is clear then from the above that problems within the education system have been identified and are being addressed, through legislation drive and forward thinking as financial investment alone will not solve the problem, however, it does indicate that the problem can be solved.Working on the guidelines for change recommended in ECM the government has produced a series of paper aimed at outlining the way forward to narrow the gap for specific groups. June 2009 saw the publication of the current governments white paper Building a twenty-first Century School System along with Breakin g the Link.Building a 21st Century School System proposes the way forward for education. It documents how this and future governments will build on the existing school system to create a new system that will provide an education that is able to act in response to the challenges of society. Further it looks at and endorses a all inclusive educational system aiming to break the link between deprivation, disadvantage, disability and low educational attainment and so impacts upon intergenerational poverty as discussed above and where every child, regardless of gender, ethnicity or circumstance poverty will have the opportunity to develop and gain the skills necessary to succeed in the ever changing global climate. (DCSF 21st Century School System)One element of the 21st Century School is Extended run within schools. This has now been utilize in 72% of schools nationwide and it is intended that by the end of 2010 all schools will offer extended school services. The aim being, to have integrated health and social care on site as well as child care and after school facilities thereby ensuring that problems which may potentially stand in the way of pupils learning are more easily and readily dealt with. However, data to date shows that whilst awareness of and satisfaction with services among parents is relatively high, there remains a participation gap between FSM eligible pupils and those not eligible, with non FSM showing typically a 10% higher participation rate. The issue therefore is to further encourage the disadvantaged groups and, in particular those eligible for FSM, to participate and make use of the offer. The participation gap indicates that children from poorer backgrounds are less likely than their peers to have used to such facilities and are therefore less likely to state that the service meets their needs on the other hand the data shows clearly that progress is being been made in enabling disadvantaged children to participate in quality after sch ool activities, but that more needs to be done to tap the benefits of these activities to bring this groups engagement with learning. (DSCF Breaking the Link, 2009)ConclusionIt is not poverty alone that is the barrier to educational achievement. Poverty is circumstance. This and subsequent governments can, and should invest in education in order to give our children the opportunity they need to break away from intergenerational poverty and to close the gap in educational achievement and social inclusion. While children are denied their basic human right of an education equal for all, no matter their current circumstance, they will remain in poverty. upward(a) life chances through education, for all, is not an unrealistic aspiration but does demand the commitment of policymakers, both national and local, schools, partner agencies and parents to work together, to be rivet on delivering change for all.As Nelson Mandela broke through his barrier and proved that race need not hold ba ck achievement, this country too can break down barriers children from all backgrounds can achieve poverty does not and should not be a barrier to attainment.