Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Satoro Tanaka and Mrs. Hitara Importance in David Masumoto's and Pico Essay

Satoro Tanaka and Mrs. Hitara Importance in David Masumoto's and Pico Iyer's and Texts - Essay Example In Harvest Son Masumoto mentions how his interaction with a buckwheat farmer Satoro Tanaka comes to affect him profoundly, and how he develops a fondness for the farmer. Pico Iyer is a British-born, American-raised eminent writer of Indian descent who decided to settle in Japan. His essay â€Å"Our Lady of Lawson† is about his experiences in Japan as a foreigner who refuses to succumb to the pressure to indulge in native Japanese food. He talks about a convenience store he frequently visited and the effect it had on him, especially the interaction between him and the convenience store manager, Mrs. Hirata. The two stories therefore share the common theme of two foreigners analyzing two different characters in Japan. Discussion In Harvest Son, Masumoto forms a close attachment to a local buckwheat farm and its farmer, Satoro Tanaka, while in Eat, Memory: Our Lady of Lawson, Pico Iyer experiences the same emotional attachment to a local convenience store, Lawson’s, and it s proprietor, Mrs. Hirata. Several similar themes run through both of these narratives, starting from the similarities between both authors. First and most important, both Masumoto and Iyer can be considered as â€Å"wild† children, belonging everywhere and nowhere at the same time. Masumoto is a Japanese-American while Iyer was born in England but has been raised in the United States of America. Masumoto has journeyed back to the land of his ancestors to reconnect with their native heritage while Iyer has chosen Japan as his country of settlement. They are considered, as Masumoto puts it, â€Å"strangers†. Iyer writes of the sense of alienation due to something as basic as his entrenched American eating habits and lack of love for Japanese food; â€Å"my housemates in Japan simply shrug and see this as ultimate confirmation -- me dragging at some lasagna in a plastic box while they gobble down dried fish -- that I belong to an alien species† (Iyer, pg.1). His l ove of the convenience store further serves to solidify his characterization as an outsider who refuses to fit in, even though he insists that his love for Japan is real and on a deeper level. Having lived in the country for 12 years, he should still not be typecast as an alien, yet somehow, he still is. This he attributes mostly to his refusal to conform to Japanese food and his standing firmly by convenience-store meals. It can therefore be said of both of them that they are attempting to fit into their homeland’s culture, and understand and identify with their people. Masumoto identifies with Satoro Tanaka’s buckwheat farming while Iyer points out the specific attributes and values he considers â€Å"Japanese†: It's no easier to understand Japan in Western terms than it is to eat noodles with a knife and fork. Yet it has been evident to me for some time that the crush of the anonymous world lies out in the temple-filled streets; the heart of the familiarity, the communal sense of neighborhood, the simple kindness that brought me to Japan, lies in the convenience store.(Iyer, pg.2). The convenience store, and specifically, Mrs. Hitara, or Hitara-San, as Iyer refers to her in formal Japanese, comes to embody these values: And yet, in the 12 years I've lived on and off in my mock-California suburb, the one person who has come to embody for me all

Monday, October 28, 2019

Three Signs of a Miserable Job Essay Example for Free

Three Signs of a Miserable Job Essay In his book entitled, â€Å"Three Signs of a Miserable Job,† Patrick Lencioni discusses job satisfaction by defining or rather, identifying the signs of a miserable job. According to the author there are stark differences between a job that is simply just â€Å"bad† from one that is â€Å"miserable.† The author uses many different examples throughout the book to stress his point and at the end is able to show that having a â€Å"miserable† job is not something that always has to be a problem. Patrick Lencioni addresses this issue by showing that there are many different methods of dealing with work related stress. In previous centuries the jobs available to a particular person were often predetermined by the occupation of that persons parent, in the recent years, however, more and more studies have come out showing the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. The reason behind this is that it has been shown in the Hawthorne Studies that individuals are willing to work for other benefits or factors besides pay or compensation. This led to more research as to what other factors may prompt an individual to perform work and thus led to the study of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. This, according to the author, is the main source of job dissatisfaction. The relevance of this lies in the effect that a miserable job has upon a person. According to Lencioni, a miserable job can not only demoralize a person but it can also lead to frustrations that are brought in out of work forums. This leads to disastrous results not only in the industry but to society as well. The main cause of the problem lies with most of the members of management. As shown in a survey that the author cites, the main cause for job dissatisfaction that worker turnover is the boss. The key in dealing with the problem is in identifying what the signs of job misery are and if they are present. According to Lencioni, anonymity, irrelevance and immeasurement are the typical signs that a person is miserable with his job. The presence of these factors shows that the employee is not only miserable but they also signify that an employee is more likely to leave his current job or exhibit more work disruptive attitudes. The first sign, anonymity, is essential because it has to do with the value of the employee. Every employee, according to Lencioni, who does not feel like he or she is making a valuable contribution to work often, feels miserable. As previously mentioned, the rewards at work are not only financial but otherwise. Job satisfaction depends not only on the payment but also the intangible rewards such as being recognized. When the employee feels that the manages does not have any interest in them, their productivity decreases and they feel miserable in work. Another sign is irrelevance. This means that the employee acts as if anything that he or she contributes is useless. This feeling of futility greatly demoralizes the employee and also leads to dissatisfaction at work. The negative effect is that it can spill over to the rest of the group and negatively impact workplace productivity. The last sign is immeasurement which is the lack of ability of workers to gauge their success at work. Most employees have the need to assess just how much they have accomplished. Without this, the employee feels as if they are stuck in the â€Å"twilight zone† with no hope in sight. It is important therefore for the employee to see the progress that he or she has accomplished. The remedy, according to the author, lies in establishing good communication between the employee and the manager. Oftentimes, this problem is caused by lack of or total absence of communication. Therefore, in order to prevent this problem, the employee must strive to communicate to the manager his or her concerns before it becomes a huge problem that can no longer be remedied.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Age and Beauty in Next Day by Randall Jarrell :: Next Day Randall Jarrell

Age and Beauty In the poem "Next Day" by Randall Jarrell, the speaker is a lady who is very troubled by her increasing age. I think it is interesting that this was written in 1965 because that is the same year that the author died. It raises the question of whether the poem was about his own feelings or if it was about another person. Perhaps he knew that his life was coming to an end soon and before he died he wanted to convey his thoughts to others. The title suggests that the speaker is writing about the implications of the days to come and maybe learning to face them. The beginning of the poem lets the reader know that the old lady is upset about her current lifestyle and where she thinks it will lead her. She longs for the days when she was young and beautiful and everybody looked at her and wanted her. When the boy takes her groceries out to her car, she wanted him to see her in that way but she knows that her physical appearance has changed to the point where she no longer gets those same yearning looks anymore. I got the impression that she feels she is not fitting into this present decade and that she only knows best what happened in her prime years. When she was younger, people turned their heads and actually noticed her. But now she is angry about her lack of influence on the world. The line "as I look at my life, I am afraid only that it will change, as I am changing," means that she fears her life may get even more worse than it has already become. She spends her time alone contemplating all of this and trying to come to terms w ith the future. She is afraid of her aged face and hates what it has turned into. The youthfulness of her past has completely left her and now she is forced to deal with the present. I think it is apparent that she is afraid of dying because when she went to the funeral and saw her friend's face, she thought of herself lying there in the casket. The lady in this poem is confused about her life. She realizes that she does not have many years left.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

How Globalization Effects Third World Countries Essay

Globalization refers to the ways in which capital; people, information and culture can now flow back and forth across national borders with a greater ease and greater rapidity than they had before this new phenomenon. Globalization, the growing integration of economies and societies around the world, was a word hardly used only a few years ago and now I doubt if there is a single country in the world where globalization isn’t being discussed. The global spread of the term is evidence that something very new is happening in the world but I’m not saying this new term is beneficial for all. This phenomenon has both positive and negative effects on third world countries but in the end it seems like only one party is benefiting, the rich. † The poor are thus being doubly denied their right to life first when the resources that sustain them are taken away from them in a free trade world, and then when the pollution and waste of the global economy are unequally and unjustly piled on them.† (Global Capitalism p.128)Though globalization has been one of the most hotly debated topics in international economics over the past few years there has been some bright sides. Rapid growth and poverty reduction in China, India, and other countries that were poor 20 years ago, has been a positive aspect of globalization. Another positive attribute according to Thomas l. Friedman, in his book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, is globalization â€Å"increases the incentives for not making war in more ways than in any previous era in modern history.†Ã¢â‚¬  To begin, it is important to explain the meaning of The Lexus and the Olive Tree. The Lexus refers to technological advancement and growth, where the Olive Tree refers to traditional roots and stability. The basic premise of the book is the conflict between the two within cultures, economies, and individuals and how it if possible, at all, to bring the two camps together.† (Friedman p.31-34)But globalization has also generated significant international opposition over concerns that it has increased inequality and environmental degradation. The proponents of globalization cite numerous benefits to be gained by underdeveloped countries though greater access to the goods and services that transnational companies can provide. Anti-globalization activists, on the other hand, point to many examples in the developing world where globalization has robbed indigenous  populations of traditionally held land or water rights, disrupted cultural and social values, and disturbed lifestyles. Problem StatementWhat I intend to examine in this paper is the comparison trend of capitalism in the late 19th – early 20th century with the trend of globalization today. Explaining that globalization of the world economy has the potential to bring both great benefit and great hardship to third world populations, but like capitalism, globalization without proper checks and balances could become a runaway force, knowing no moral or ethical boundaries. Though globalization offers extensive opportunities for worldwide development, in my opinion this process is not progressing evenly. I intend to prove that the richest of 225 people in the world have a combined wealth equal to the annual income of the poorest 47% of the world’s individuals. (Joshua Karliner) Countries that have been able to integrate with other nations are seeing faster growth and reduced poverty. However, many nations have not been so fortunate, especially in developing areas. One in four individuals across the world lives in abject poverty, without access to adequate food, clean water, sanitation, essential healthcare or basic education services. This is both the principal moral issue facing the world as well as the utmost menace to the future security and stability of the planet. Many of today’s problems, such as war and conflict, mass migration, and environmental degradation are rooted in poverty and inequality. Yet if globalization resembles early capitalism, the rise of international anti-globalization organizations is beginning to resemble the early development of trade unions in the western world. While pro-globalization forces still consider these groups to be nothing more than a collection of cranks and misfits, incapable of understanding the global economy, there is growing evidence that these groups are becoming a force to be reckoned with:†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ the process of globalization also has created alliances once thought impossible. At the Seattle protests against the World Trade Organization in 1999 — and later at â€Å"anti-globalization† protests in Washington, DC, Los  Angeles, Prague and Quebec City — debt relief activists, Green party members, health care advocates, labor leaders, development economists, religious groups and hundreds of thousands of young people marched together.† (AlterNet par. 2) Interestingly, the same forces that facilitate economic globalization also greatly enhance the abilities of the anti-globalization faction to mobilize against it. Greater communication, Internet use, travel, and news dissemination allow activists around the world greater access to each other and greater knowledge of difficulties being faced in developing countries. Of particular interest is the timeliness of the broadcast of information, this sometimes allowing activists to slow or stop projects, rather than just criticize them after the fact. Globalization can also put a spotlight on issues of international and local justice, giving people access to supporters that was never before available and helping to advertise problems that in earlier times would never have been picked up by the media. Thus it seems possible that while developing countries very often have governments that actively promote the most ugly aspects of globalization, or are at least powerless to prevent them, the rising tide of grass-roots activism shared by both the developed and developing worlds may, in fact, be the beginning of an organization with the ability to curb and regulate globalization. In order to have a clear understanding of globalization’s impact on third world and the developing world, it is important to understand exactly what globalization means. When discussing globalization many make the mistake of assuming that it is a merely or even primarily an economic process. However, globalization also has political and social implications. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) sees globalization as an economic, and as a purely natural stage in human cultural and technological evolution stating:†Economic globalization is a historical process and the result of human innovation and technological progress. It refers to the increasing integration of economies around the world, particularly through trade and financial flows. The term sometimes also refers to the movement of people  (labor) and knowledge (technology) across international borders.† (IMF par. 6)The IMF also assumes that globalization, because it is a natural occurrence, is a good thing. From this point of view, the inequalities of wealth and poverty are the result of unequal globalization, and once that full globalization is reached, poorer countries will automatically benefit. The income gap between high-income and low-income countries has grown in recent decades. But it is wrong to jump to the conclusion that globalization has caused the divergence, or that nothing can be done to improve the situation. To the contrary: low-income countries haven’t been able to integrate with the global economy as quickly as others, partly because of their chosen policies and because of factors outside their control. No country, least of all the poorest, can afford to remain isolated from the world economy. Every country should seek to reduce poverty. The international community should endeavor by strengthening the international financial system through trade and through aid in order to help the poorest countries integrate into the world economy, grow more rapidly, and reduce poverty. That is the way to ensure all people in all countries have access to the benefits of globalization. (IMF par. 48)Objective OverviewMy main reason for writing this paper on globalization effects on third world countries is because I’m from a developing country, Grenada. Though it’s been many years sine I last visited my country of birth I’m still very interested in seeing this beautiful island successfully build up its economy. Also I want to be very much a cause of that development but I first needed to find out the general meaning of globalization and it’s effects on poverty stricken countries. As well as if globalization is helping or hindering my country as well as other developing nations. During my research I’ve gained a better understanding of globalizations cause and effects. The trends of globalization, rapid technological advancements, free trade and emergence of trading communities present challenges to Grenada’s developing economy. The Caribbean region as a whole is struggling with the reduction of international aid funds, due to relatively strong performance on the UN Human Development Index, at the same time that the region’s traditionally agricultural based economies are turning to tourism  for economic growth. In my opinion this hasn’t been enough for my country’s developing process. Agricultural production, primarily of bananas, cocoa, mace, and nutmeg, has historically been the largest sector of Grenada’s economy, providing the majority of employment and foreign exchange earnings. However, between 1987 and 2000 agriculture declined from 18.7% of GDP to 9.7%. The sector was plagued by problems throughout this period, including the loss of preferential trade agreements with the EC, a mealy bug infestation that devastated crops, the collapse of a nutmeg price agreement with Indonesia, and quality control problems that halted all banana exports. For example, â€Å"Critics point out that not only does the U.N. report depart from standard economic procedures like not correcting for price levels from country to country it hides numbers. Perhaps most egregiously, it compares gaps in income between the poorest and richest countries not individuals. Thus the economic circumstances of the citizens of tiny Grenada are put on a par with those of China, which has a population 12,000 times greater. Mistakes like these completely distort the record of globalization.† (The Rich Get Rich and Poor Get Poorer. Right? Let’s Take Another Look.) During the months after American invasion, which was beneficial, the mass organizations were dismantled, the labor unions were reorganized, over half of all medical personnel were expelled, investment and tax codes were revised to favor foreign investment, and cooperatives and states enterprises were sold to private interests. Billboards that had inspired the population to work for justice, equality, development and national sovereignty were quickly replaced by those designed to inspire them to buy American consumer products. The quality of life for most islanders deteriorated in the period following the invasion despite infusions of American aid. This is why I’m very interested in what globalization is doing for developing nations though I’m living a better life here; I’m still concerned in the countries progress. Although Grenada’s economy has been expanding, poverty is widespread. Though there is political freedom, the government is conservative and corrupt. And, in this era of neo-liberal globalization, the  island’s brief socialist experiment is but a fading memory. Lecture Review†The Era of Globalization† or is fast becoming the preferred term for describing the current times. Just as the Depression, the Cold War Era, the Space Age, and the Roaring 20’s are used to describe particular periods of history; globalization describes the political, economic, and cultural atmosphere of today. (Porter par. 3)Economic â€Å"globalization† is a historical process, the result of human innovation and technological progress. It refers to the increasing integration of economies around the world, particularly through trade and financial flows. The term sometimes also refers to the movement of people (labor) and knowledge (technology) across international borders. (Globalization: Threat or Opportunity? IMF par. 6) I didn’t particularly agree with the IMF’s take on Globalization but as I further researched the IMF’s views I began to understand them. Global free trade has caused worldwide environmental destruction in asymmetric pattern. The international economy is controlled by the corporations of the North who are increasingly exploiting Third World resources for their global activities. (Global Capitalism p.113) This is exactly how I feel about Grenada. Resources are being drained but nothing is going back into the country. The Vandana Shiva, author of this particular chapter in the book, really explains how I feel about globalization in Third World countries she further discuss,† It is the South that is disproportionately bearing the environmental burden of the globalised economy.†Joseph E. Stiglitz states,† IMF programs are typically dictated from Washington, and shaped by the short missions during which its staff members pore over numbers in the finance ministries and central banks and make themselves comfortable in five-star hotels in the capitals. There is more than symbolism in this difference: one cann ot come to learn about, and love, a nation unless one gets out to the countryside.†(Globalization and Its Discontents, p.24) He basically is saying the economist sent from the IMF should spend time in the country’s poorest areas not in the developed cities. I agree. He further says,† Statistic bear out what those who travel outside the capital see in the villages of Africa, Nepal, Mindanao, or Ethiopia; the gap between the poor and the rich has been growing, and even  the number in absolutely poverty-living on less than a dollar a day-has increased.†A question was asked of author Thomas L. Friedman in his book The Lexus and the Olive Tree by an Egyptian woman, â€Å"Does globalization mean we just leave the poor to fend for themselves?† he stated, â€Å"After enough such conversations I realized that most Egyptians-understandably-were approaching globalization out of a combination of despair and necessity, not out of any sense of opportunity. Globalization meant adapting to a threat coming from the outside, not increasing their freedoms. I also realized that their previous ideo logies-Arab nationalism, socialism, fascism or communism-while they may have made no economic sense, had a certain inspirational power. But globalism totally lacks this. When you tell a traditional society it has to streamline, downsize and get with the Internet, it is a challenge that is devoid of any redemptive or inspirational force. And that is why, for all of globalization’s obvious power to elevate living standards, it is going to be a tough, tough sell to all those millions who still say a prayer before they ride the elevator.†Concluding StatementsGlobalization has the potential to bring both great benefit and great hardship to developing nations and third world populations. Like capitalism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, globalization without proper checks and balances could become a runaway force, knowing no moral or ethical boundaries. But capitalism has been somewhat tamed by a system of checks and balances that have grown from a variety of sources, including labor unions, activists, legal restrictions such as anti-trust laws, and such organizations as the FDA and SEC. While many people currently find globalization quite alarming due to its unregulated environment and the lack of restrictions on multi-national corporations, globalization carries within itself the very vehicle for its own regulation. Although formal international legal entities are still too weak to create lasting and enforceable legislation, the groundswell of public opinion is making itself felt. Internet use is putting activists in the developed world in direct contact with the developing world populations being most affected by globalization. Greater access to international travel allows protesters to be on hand and heard during meetings such as those of the WTO taking place in Seattle. The explosion of cable and online news services has made access to wide varieties of information easily available. Activists and protesters are able to reach investors, and investors are making their views heard through the buying and selling of stock. Just as runaway capitalism seemed untamable in the infancy of the labor movement, globalization now seems too monolithic an entity to ever be harnessed. It is possible, however, that the social, political, and legal results of today’s anti-globalization activism may provide enough safety measures that globalization can become primarily an agent of progress for all people. Whether this will happen in time to save developing countries from being socially and culturally overwhelmed, it is too early to say. BIBLOGRAPHY Porter, Keith. â€Å"What is Globalization?† Globalization Issues. Nov. 2002 World Bank. Poverty in an Age of Globalization. Oct. 2000 /povertyglobalization.pdf. Globalization Overview. Nov. 2002 Countries from A to Z. Grenada. The US Invasion of Grenada (2003)., Joshua. The Corporate Planet: Ecology and Politics in the Age of Globalization. 1997. Sierra Club Books. Longworth, R.C. â€Å"Globalization Survey Reveals U.S. Corporations Prefer Dictatorships.† Nov 19, 1999. Monetary Fund. â€Å"Globalization: Threat or Opportunity?† Apr. 12, 2000. Hutton, Will and Giddens, Anthony. (2000). Global Capitalism. The New York Press, New York2000. Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2003). Globalization and Its Discontents. W.W, Norton & Company, Inc.,500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. ISBN 0-393-05124-2Friedman, Thomas L. (1999,2000). The Lexus and the Olive Tree. New York: Farrar, StrausGiroux ISBN 0-385-49934-5Postrel, Virginia. (August 15, 2002).†The Rich Get Rich and Poor Get Poorer. Right? Let’s TakeAnother Look.† New York Times

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Hawthorne Effect and Human Relation Movement

Describe how the components of the Hawthorne study are incorporated in current human resource functions? What was the main idea behind this study? How have you been impacted by the components of this study in your current or past work setting? According to Baack (2012), the human relation movement in management began in 1920s and was based on the human element of organizations. The Hawthorne study became one of the branches of the human relation movement (Baack, 2012) As stated by Cubbon (1969), the Hawthorne studies were carried out from the Hawthorne Works, a factory in Chicago.The idea of those studies was experimenting with psychological factors influencing the employees, while the goal was to increase the productivity levels (Cubbon, 1968). With time, the term became widely known, and many organizations conducted the similar studies. Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger have conducted the Hawthorne studies focusing their research on the employees and the aspects that influenced t he workers productivity (Baack, 2012).According to their findings, the productivity rates increased due to positive interactions between workers and researches, entry-level employees were actively fulfilling the duties of the supervisors without worrying about being disciplined for poor performance, and people started working closely in groups, while being loyal to one another (Baack, 2012). The research showed that workers are motivated not only by money, but also by social interactions, which should be accounted for at the workplace (Baack, 2012).Human Resources department of any organization should be focused on the workers. Its primary duties are to treat employees fairly and make sure that an organization gives back to its own people. Higher level of people’s satisfaction with the job will lead to the company’s success. It is necessary for managers to understand what makes the employees happier to increase the levels of productivity; that is why conducting the Haw thorne studies is important.For example, people in my department are not fond of each other; they do not like to work in teams and usually keep blaming each other for different mistakes. If our management arranged different experiments to understand the employees a little better and to find the root of the problem, the workers would eventually change their ways and views, which would lead to creating a better work environment.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Boxer Rebellion in Chinese History

The Boxer Rebellion in Chinese History Beginning in 1899, the Boxer Rebellion was an uprising in China against foreign influence in religion, politics, and trade. In the fighting, the Boxers killed thousands of Chinese Christians and attempted to storm the foreign embassies in Beijing. Following a 55-day siege, the embassies were relieved by 20,000 Japanese, American, and European troops. In the wake of the rebellion, several punitive expeditions were launched and the Chinese government was forced to sign the Boxer Protocol which called for the rebellions leaders to be executed and the payment of financial reparations to the injured nations. Dates The Boxer Rebellion began in November 1899, in the Shandong Province and ended on September 7, 1901, with the signing of the Boxer Protocol. Outbreak The activities of the Boxers, also known as the Righteous and Harmonious Society Movement, began in the Shandong Province of eastern China in March 1898. This was largely in response to the failure of the governments modernization initiative, the Self-Strengthening Movement, as well as the German occupation of the Jiao Zhou region and the British seizure of Weihai. The first signs of unrest appeared in a village after a local court ruled in favor of giving a local temple over to the Roman Catholic authorities for use as a church. Upset by the decision, the villagers, led by Boxer agitators, attacked the church. The Uprising Grows While the Boxers initially pursued an anti-government platform, they shifted to an anti-foreigner agenda after being severely beaten by Imperial troops in October 1898. Following this new course, they fell upon Western missionaries and Chinese Christians who they viewed as agents of foreign influence. In Beijing, the Imperial court was controlled by ultra-conservatives who supported the Boxers and their cause. From their position of power, they forced the Empress Dowager Cixi to issue edicts endorsing the Boxers activities, which angered foreign diplomats. The Legation Quarter Under Attack In June 1900, the Boxers, along with parts of the Imperial Army, began attacking foreign embassies in Beijing and Tianjin. In Beijing, the embassies of Great Britain, the United States, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Russia, and Japan were all located in the Legation Quarter near the Forbidden City. Anticipating such a move, a mixed force of 435 marines from eight countries had been sent to reinforce the embassy guards. As the Boxers approached, the embassies were quickly linked into a fortified compound. Those embassies located outside of the compound were evacuated, with the staff taking refuge inside. On June 20, the compound was surrounded and attacks began. Across town, the German envoy, Klemens von Ketteler, was killed trying to escape the city. The following day, Cixi declared war on all of the Western powers, however, her regional governors refused to obey and a larger war was avoided. In the compound, the defense was led by the British ambassador, Claude M. McDonald. Fighting with small arms and one old cannon, they managed to keep the Boxers at bay. This cannon became known as the International Gun, as it had a British barrel, an Italian carriage, fired Russian shells, and was served by Americans. The First Attempt to Relieve the Legation Quarter To deal with the Boxer threat, an alliance was formed between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Great Britain, and the United States. On June 10, an international force of 2,000 Marines was dispatched from Takou under British Vice Admiral Edward Seymour to aid Beijing. Moving by rail to Tianjin, they were forced to continue on foot as the Boxers had severed the line to Beijing. Seymours column advanced as far Tong-Tcheou, 12 miles from Beijing, before being forced to retreat due to stiff Boxer resistance. They arrived back at Tianjin on June 26, having suffered 350 casualties. Second Attempt to Relieve the Legation Quarter With the situation deteriorating, the members of the Eight-Nation Alliance sent reinforcements to the area. Commanded by British Lieutenant-General Alfred Gaselee, the international army numbered 54,000. Advancing, they captured Tianjin on July 14. Continuing with 20,000 men, Gaselee pressed on for the capital. Boxer and Imperial forces next made a stand at Yangcun where they assumed a defensive position between the Hai River and a railroad embankment.  Enduring intense temperatures which led to many Allied soldiers falling out of the ranks, British, Russian, and American forces attacked on August 6. In the fighting, American troops secured the embankment and found that many of the Chinese defenders had fled.  The remainder of the day saw the Allies engage the enemy in a series of rearguard actions. Arriving at Beijing, a plan was quickly developed which called for each major contingent to assault a separate gate in the citys eastern wall.  While the Russians struck in the north, the Japanese would attack to the south with the Americans and British below them.  Deviating from the plan, the Russians moved against the Dongen, which had been assigned to the Americans, around 3:00 AM on August 14.  Though they breached the gate, they were quickly pinned down.  Arriving on the scene, the surprised Americans shifted 200 yards south.  Once there, Corporal Calvin P. Titus volunteered to scale the wall to secure a foothold on the ramparts.  Successful, he was followed by the remainder of the American forces.  For his bravery, Titus later received the Medal of Honor. To the north, the Japanese succeeded in gaining access to the city after a sharp fight while further south the British penetrated into Beijing against minimal resistance. Pushing towards the Legation Quarter, the British column dispersed the few Boxers in the area and reached their goal around 2:30 PM.  They were joined by the Americans two hours later. Casualties among the two columns proved extremely light with one of the wounded being Captain Smedley Butler.  With the siege of the legation compound relieved, the combined international force swept the city the next day and occupied the Imperial City. Over the next year, a second German-led international force conducted punitive raids throughout China. Boxer Rebellion Aftermath Following the fall of Beijing, Cixi sent Li Hongzhang to begin negotiations with the alliance. The result was the Boxer Protocol which required the execution of ten high-ranking leaders who had supported the rebellion, as well as payment of 450,000,000 taels of silver as war reparations. The Imperial governments defeat further weakened the Qing Dynasty, paving the way for its overthrow in 1912. During the fighting, 270 missionaries were killed, along with 18,722 Chinese Christians. The allied victory also led to further partitioning of China, with the Russians occupying Manchuria and the Germans taking Tsingtao.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Overpopulation Essays - Population Ecology, Human Overpopulation

Overpopulation Essays - Population Ecology, Human Overpopulation Overpopulation By: Eric Krause Do you feel that all humans have the right to enjoy natural beauty? The right to decent, uncrowded shelter? The right to eat healthy food and drink pure water? To breathe clean air and avoid pesticide poisoning? Most people would say every human has a right to all of these things, but in some areas of the world these rights are not being met. Most species have a sideways "S" shaped graph reflecting growth rate, meaning the species will go up in total population but will eventually start to go down again. The human population graph resembles more of a "J", starting out low and then skyrocketing straight up. At our current growth rate the world's population of 5.8 billion would double in only about 45 years. The United States population would double in less than 100 years. Today the birth rate is about three times the death rate world wide (The Population Explosion). The closer these two rates are, the slower population growth will be. Because of all of these reasons, efforts by the government should be made to slow down the world population growth. Overpopulation is becoming a bigger concern as the growth rate continues to skyrocket. Overpopulation is sometimes mis understood or mistaken with other issues. Overpopulation does not deal with crowding, but in fact, density is irrelevant to questions of overpopulation (Adams J.A. Crusade Against Overpopulation). What is relevant is carrying capacity. Carrying capacity refers to how much an area can hold having all things at equilibrium, including all plants and animals. An area is overpopulated when its long-term carrying capacity is being degraded by its current human occupants. David Pimentel at the Carrying Capacity Network stated, "By this standard, the entire planet and virtually every nation is already vastly overpopulated." Some people say the earth is not overpopulated since the United States can produce more food and products than are used. That is true in the U.S. Now if you look at it world-wide the products we have are often from other countries. These other countries a re often not as well off. These other countries are either in severe poverty or their cities are becoming overcrowded (STOP: Everyone must be educated about the realities of overpopulation). Although the U.S. is not in trouble at this time, when you look at the whole world you may see a different picture. Eventually the rest of the world will also have an effect on us. The impact of humans on their environment has to do with three factors. The first is the number of people. The more people there are the more resources are used. If too many resources begin to be used they will run out before they get a chance to be replaced. Leaving all plant and animal life with nothing and everything will eventually die off. The rainforests are a good example of this. The second is the amount of resources consumed by the average person. If people become wasteful and don't conserve resources now, the resources that were wasted will not be able to be used in the future. The United States is one of the most wasteful countries there is. We are more wasteful than necessary. Recycling has helped quite a bit, but the problem has not yet been fixed. The third is the environmental damage caused in the manufacturing of the goods consumed. Manufacturing grows as people demand more manufactured goods. If too much manufacturing takes place many plants and animals begin to suf fer. It may not have an impact on us for a while, but after many years pass, the availability of food, water, and shelter will begin to decrease. Another problem caused by the rapid growth rate is to the environment. Bio diversity plays an important part in the survival of all species. It is the multiplicity of plants, insects, and animals on Earth that makes the survival of all species possible. A planet without a suitable habitat for non-human creatures will soon not be suitable for humans either. Once humans expand enough and kill off a lot of plant and animal life, what are we going to eat? As human numbers grow, we demand more space and resources from

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Peacock Facts (Pavo sp. and Afropavo sp.)

Peacock Facts (Pavo sp. and Afropavo sp.) Peacocks are birds known for their showy plumage and piercing calls. While both males and females are often called peacocks, really only the male is the peacock. The female is a peahen, while the young are peachicks. Collectively, they are properly known as peafowl. Fast Facts: Peacock Scientific Name: Pavo cristatus; Pavo muticus; Afropavo congensisCommon Names: Peacock, Indian peacock, blue peafowl, green peafowl, Java peafowl, African peacock, Congo peafowl, mbuluBasic Animal Group: BirdSize: 3.0-7.5 feetWeight: 6-13 poundsLifespan: 15-20 yearsDiet: OmnivoreHabitat: Forests of India, Southeast Asia, and Congo Basin of AfricaPopulation: ThousandsConservation Status: Least Concern to Endangered (depending on species) Species Peafowl belong to the pheasant family (Phasianidae). The three genera are Pavo cristatus, the Indian or blue peacock; Pavo muticus, the Java or green peafowl; and Afropavo congensis, the African peafowl or mbulu. There are also subspecies of green peafowl. The male green peafowl and female Indian peafowl can mate to produce a fertile hybrid called a spalding. Description Peacocks are easily identified by their fan-like crest of feathers and long train of colorful eye-spot feathers. Male birds have spurs on their legs which they use for territorial disputes with other males. While peahens have a feathered crest, they lack the elaborate train. Both males and females have iridescent feathers. Actually, the feathers are brown, but crystalline structures produce vibrant blue, green, and gold colors by the scattering and interference of light. The body of the blue peacock appears blue, while the body of the green peacock appears green. The African peacock is a darker blue-green and brown. Chicks bear cryptic coloring in shades of tan and brown that help them blend in with their environment. Both males and females are large birds, but males are about twice the length of females because of their feather train. On average, adults range from three to over seven feet from beak to tail tip. They weigh between six and thirteen pounds. African or Congo peafowl have shorter trains the green or blue peafowl. Stan Osolinski, Getty Images Habitat and Distribution Originally, the Indian peacock came from the Indian subcontinent. Now it is widely distributed across South Asia. Green peafowl live in Southeast Asia, including China, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Java. The African peacock is native to the Congo Basin. The three peafowl species do not naturally overlap ranges. All three species prefer forested habitats. Diet and Behavior Like other pheasants, peafowl are omnivorous, basically eating anything that fits in their beaks. They eat fruits, insects, crops, garden plants, seeds, insects, small mammals, and small reptiles. At night, peacocks fly to tree branches to roost in family units. Reproduction and Offspring The breeding season is variable and depends largely on rain. Males fan their feathers to attract a mate. A female may select a mate based on several factors, which include the visual display, its low-frequency vibration (picked up by the females crest feathers), or the males call. A blue peacock has a harem of two to three peahens, while green and African peafowl tend to be monogamous. After mating, the female scrapes a shallow nest in the ground and lays between four and eight buff-colored eggs. She incubates the eggs, which hatch after 28 days. Only the female cares for the chicks, which follow her around or may be carried on her back when she flies to roost. Peafowl reach sexual maturity at two to three years of age. In the wild, they live between 15 and 20 years, but they may live 30 years in captivity. Green peahen with chicks. Ronald Leunis / EyeEm, Getty Images Conservation Status Peafowl conservation status depends on species. The IUCN classifies the conservation status of the Indian peacock as least concern. The bird enjoys wide distribution across Southeast Asia, with a wild population over 100,000. The IUCN lists the Congo peafowl as vulnerable and decreasing in population. In 2016, the number of mature birds was estimated to range between 2,500 and 10,000. The green peafowl is endangered. Fewer than 20,000 mature birds remain in the wild, with a decreasing population. Threats Peacocks face numerous threats, including habitat loss and degradation, hunting, poaching and predation. Green peacocks are further endangered by introduction of hybrid birds into wild populations. Peafowl and Humans Blue peacocks are agricultural pests in some regions. Peafowl readily breed in captivity. They are most often kept for the beauty and their feathers and sometimes for meat. Peacock feathers are collected after the male molts each year. While peafowl are affectionate toward their owners, they can be aggressive toward strangers. Sources BirdLife International 2016. Afropavo congensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22679430A92814166. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22679430A92814166.enBirdLife International 2016. Pavo cristatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22679435A92814454. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22679435A92814454.enBirdLife International 2018. Pavo muticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22679440A131749282. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22679440A131749282.enGrimmett, R.; Inskipp, C.; Inskipp, T. Birds of India: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. Princeton University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-691-04910-6.  Johnsgard, P.A. The Pheasants of the World: Biology and Natural History. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 374, 1999. ISBN 1-56098-839-8.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Management - Public Personnel Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Management - Public Personnel - Assignment Example These resources can either be local based, state based or internationally based. The functions of public personnel today can be extensively classified into 4 different areas namely: planning, sanctions, acquisition and development. To be effective, theses functions are implemented through different organizations such as state, federal, local government and NGOs (Disalvo, 2010). Four trends affecting Public Personnel Today The four trends that affect the performance of public personnel today are governance changes, economic changes, technological changes in the work environment and the role that is played by citizens in the process of governance. First and foremost, the changes experienced in the economy have resulted in paradigm shift from national to global, production to delivery of service and finally from public commitment to limited commitment. For instance, in the majority of the urban areas, more than half of the human resources are from private organizations and not the gover nment agencies. Also, in most of the states, the number of employees within the private security organizations far outnumbers those of the local police departments. On the second point that affects the changes in the governance structure, the government is being redefined and this redefining includes, changing the perception of the government relationship with its citizens including focusing attention on the citizen whereby the citizen is regarded as a customer. It also involves the creation of a government that requires less to operate but does more in terms of service to its citizens and its general performance. Thirdly, we look at the effect of technology and the workplace. Technology and the workplace environment are a source of concern in the area of public personnel. The area of Public personnel has been widely impacted by the changes that have been experienced in the field of Information Technology. From the introduction of concepts such as cyberspace to the creation of the m any platforms with which communication can now take place, advancements in this field have impacted greatly in public agencies. The way that employees of public agencies carry out their day to day functions has greatly changed due to the impact of information technology. It has also resulted in diversity among the employees and affected their work ethics and other previously held values. Finally, we look on the aspect of the role played by citizens in their governance; it is evident that citizens are now playing a vital role in governance. This is because citizens are do not only perform the role of being recipients of government services, but they are also actively involved in governance by making contributions to policies and other legislation that will directly affect their lives. This participation by citizens also ensures that the values of democracy are upheld by the government (Robinson & Kary-Siobhan, 2002). Four strategies needed to create a diversified workforce Diversity in the human race is a fact that cannot be understated in any form. When we come to the workplace environment, diversity can be seen in terms of age, gender, nationality, and race etc. It is imperative to understand this diverse nature in the workplace and this implies recognizing and also encouraging this fact in addition to appreciating the uniqueness of everyone in such an environment. The strategies needed for the creation of a diversified workplace include: increase in the

Friday, October 18, 2019

2 Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

2 Reflection - Essay Example Part of it can be external, with us investing in causes that we think are appropriate. Another way to do it is through values and codes of ethics. A question that has troubled many people since the dawn of time is how should a person lead a good, ethical life? Furthermore, how should a business behave in an ethical manner? There are as many theories as there are grains of sand on the beach, but a few ideas over the years have been more popular than others. Some people are born into religions where these questions are answered for them. They are able to know from an young age what their god tells them is the right thing to do and what is the wrong thing. Others question their faith and try to revise their morality, bringing in parts of other religions or philosophies. Still others have no real faith and try to build a moral foundation out of their personal experience adding rules and content to it as the years go by. In the world of today we see a new strain of thinking: the professional code of conduct. This is the form of CSR that may be most cost effective to a company. It is easy to impose, sounds good to the public, and co sts a company little. Plus, in the end it will pay dividends. This code would set out what members can and cannot do. But not all codes are created equal. Some are exhaustive, others merely illustrative. Some make suggestions, other state explicitly. However, it is important to be aware of the counterargument that exists to all CSR strategies. There are many unintended consequences for those who push the Corporate Social Responsibility agenda. It does not always lead to the results that a company might expect. Let businesses be businesses and let charities be charities. It is simply too confusing and leads to too many unintended consequences for things to be set up in any other manner. The bottom of a company sometimes falls out there: there are no sure

Personal Statement for Nursing School Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

For Nursing School - Personal Statement Example This made it possible for me to experience directly some of the situations that nurses have to deal with whether good or bad as I was close to my two nurses who are nurses. Nevertheless, the first time I seriously considered committing myself to the nursing industry was when I was going to college and had to make a choice of the particular course that I wanted to enrol for. I decided to pursue this career path without any additional thought or exploration. Consequently, I decided that I would pursue my interests in nursing fully and put all my efforts to it. Before I arrived at the decision to pursue a career in nursing, I got a chance to shadow my two aunties and some of their colleagues through their interaction with patients. These experiences allowed me to have an idea of the different fields that exist in the hospital such as cardiology, pathology and radiology among others. The time that I spent with these nurses emotionally strengthened the experiences that I had initially heard my aunties talk about. The ability they had to assist people and influence their lives excited me especially the fact that every patient presented a new challenge and a chance to further develop knowledge in the field of nursing. As I was growing up, I observed my grandmother who had to live with us because he suffered from diabetes and I developed the constant need to assist her in any way possible. The visits to the hospitals where my aunts worked gave me a chance to sit in the staff room and listen to the different doctors and nurses talk after their rounds in the hospital. I always listened attentively to their conversations that interested me and was amazed at the capacity they had to diagnose different illnesses. Since I had had a chance to experience personal interactions between medical practitioners including nurses with a patient in the case of my grandmother, I recognized the importance of the relationship between the nurses and the patients. Nurses are supposed to

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Socrates, the father of western philosophy who discussed the Essay

Socrates, the father of western philosophy who discussed the importance of thinking philosophically in his work the Apology - Essay Example For Socrates, a â€Å"good life† is a â€Å"truthful life† achieved through learning and discussion of one’s own experiences in life. From him, the didactic way of learning sprang, where wisdom is ultimately achieved through conversation and questions, such the one posited above. By examination, we appeal to the intellect and learn what is true. Now to an extent, this may lead to a good life because in knowing our end, we can accept it as proper to man and we can deem it as possible to achieve. However, Socrates was only half correct in supposing that an examination of life is what makes worth living- â€Å"living† and experiencing the truthful life is what makes it worth living. At least for me, what is the point of having an idea without actually â€Å"realizing† it, without acting this ideal life out? Because the truth is, life is not just ideas but our goals is something concrete and material- especially if you will it. The disparity between â€Å"what is† and â€Å"what ought† has long caused debate because ideas may be easy to assume but hard to put in practice. This is where my personally philosophy of walking one’s talk comes in: I assume that everyone wants a happy life, but how many people work hard to achieve that life perhaps by being truthful in one’s thoughts and

The Discourse of a learner-centered classroom Essay

The Discourse of a learner-centered classroom - Essay Example CLT was initiated in the 1970's and reflected a trend that dismissed theories which focused on rote learning and the teaching of discrete points of grammar within a decontextualised environment. The CLT approach instead oriented toward meaningful communication as an interactive process, and this approach has been emphasised for inclusion within ELT course-books. This paper will critically review the manner in which reading and writing skills are presented in the ELT course-book Fast Track, Book 5 (Teacher' Book) (EF Education, 2001). Firstly a summary of the content of Fast Track will be presented. Secondly, reading and writing content will be evaluated with regard to group activities, culture, and meaningful communication. Finally, a conclusion shall synthesise the main arguments of the paper. The conclusion will also demonstrate how Fast Track fails to meet the requirements to provide comprehensive and progressive CLT learning experiences for students of English as a second language. The ELT course-book Fast Track, Book 5 (Teacher' Book) is a 195 page soft covered text. The book is divided into 7 Units; Getting to Know You, Going Places; Friendship; The Media; Men and Women; Thinking Outside the Box; and Working World. Included with the text is a Tape for "Listening Exercises," ant an Appendix section provides "Tape Transcripts." Skill focus icons are used for each Exercise; An "Open Mouth" represents exercises that focus on speaking skills An "Open Book" stands for exercises that develop reading comprehension skills and vocabulary. An "Ear" symbolises exercises to develop listening comprehension skills. An "A+B+C+" icon stands for exercises that build vocabulary around a specific lexical group. A "Verb Subject" symbol represents exercises that focus on a grammatical point. A "Pen" stands for exercises that develop writing skills. A "Brain" symbolises exercises that develop learning skills and strategies. "Reading and Writing Exercises" are presented within each Unit. The Teacher is trained using Teachers Notes in the 1" margin of each page. For each Unit Teachers Notes, there is a brief paragraph of about 33 words, to describe the Unit and the Unit goals to the Teacher. With regard to reading and writing skills for the students, the Teacher's Notes provide details about topics such as the point of the reading exercises, as well as about grammar, verbs, adjectives, and present perfect tense. A Unit Summary is provided at the end of each Unit, to explain grammar used in the exercises, to provide points on using articles, or to provide solutions to exercises with puzzles. The Teacher's text has the answers provided for each exercise in orange font. Culture & Reading and Writing Skills The learning requirements of English as a second language students is of critical necessity for students who intend to live, be educated, socialise and work in English speaking countries. Language skills affect learning ability, and subsequently the student's concept of themselves, their formation of interpersonal relationships, and their ability to

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Socrates, the father of western philosophy who discussed the Essay

Socrates, the father of western philosophy who discussed the importance of thinking philosophically in his work the Apology - Essay Example For Socrates, a â€Å"good life† is a â€Å"truthful life† achieved through learning and discussion of one’s own experiences in life. From him, the didactic way of learning sprang, where wisdom is ultimately achieved through conversation and questions, such the one posited above. By examination, we appeal to the intellect and learn what is true. Now to an extent, this may lead to a good life because in knowing our end, we can accept it as proper to man and we can deem it as possible to achieve. However, Socrates was only half correct in supposing that an examination of life is what makes worth living- â€Å"living† and experiencing the truthful life is what makes it worth living. At least for me, what is the point of having an idea without actually â€Å"realizing† it, without acting this ideal life out? Because the truth is, life is not just ideas but our goals is something concrete and material- especially if you will it. The disparity between â€Å"what is† and â€Å"what ought† has long caused debate because ideas may be easy to assume but hard to put in practice. This is where my personally philosophy of walking one’s talk comes in: I assume that everyone wants a happy life, but how many people work hard to achieve that life perhaps by being truthful in one’s thoughts and

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

New Social Issues Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

New Social Issues - Essay Example In fact, digital media has made downloading of songs, photographs, movies, books and a host of other materials available on the Internet very simple. However, those whose rights are being infringed through piracy have not been at ease with this new revolution. This is because piracy makes them lose millions of shillings to pirates. Report indicates that a day seldom passes today without a lawsuit being filed in court regarding copyright infringement. However, going by cases that have been decided pertaining to piracies, it becomes apparent that the U.S. copyright laws have so far achieved appropriate balance in protecting the conflicting rights concerning copyright protection and digital surveillance (Thomas and Scholar, 2004). To begin with, it has to be appreciated that the digital media has transformed the world a great deal by making things, which initially looked impossible extremely easy. This is not withstanding the fact that it has increased the level of piracy, which is an illegality. However, going by the changes that the Internet has come with, it can be argued that copyright was designed for analogue generation. This is because, with today’s digital era, billions of videos, images, and texts that can easily be copied from the original source at no cost. In fact, lost of piracy today go unnoticed. It can also be seen that the framers of the U.S. constitution had the idea of the digital revolution in mind at the time of making the copyright laws. This is because the law attempts to balance the rights of individuals and those of society as regards copyright protection. This is because as much as the law protects the rights of original authors from piracy, it also gives society room to advan ce their ideas and to be innovative (Heald, 1991). The fair use doctrine contained in Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976 is one such law

Recreation and Sports Essay Example for Free

Recreation and Sports Essay Parenting, how hard could it be? Well, it is tricky and difficult. We wouldnt know because we havent experienced it yet, so we tend to underestimate it. We, as kids dont know the amount of time, and patience it takes to raise children. There are different methods and types when it comes to it. How kids turn out to be, depends on what kind of parenting they received while growing up. Today I will be talking about parenting, but mainly sensitive parenting, it is the key to successful parenting. Sensitive parenting, is one of the best methods to raise your child, children who receive sensitive parenting, develop secure attachments with their parents, which means the children will be close to their parents but on a healthy level. Also, kids who receive sensitive parenting develop insights into other peoples feelings, needs and thoughts. Those kids also have better self-control, attention, higher school achievements and confidence. Self-confidence is a very important treat in a individual. Confidence gives the kid a secure feeling, that they are capable of doing what they believe in, and achieving their goals. They will also, be cooperative with others. This is what sensitive parenting gives to children, it is the key to raising good, confident, secure kids. In order to apply good parenting methods, one should stick to a routine strategy. Kids thrive on predictability, so it is important to do the same thing on daily basis. This strategy will give you and your kid more free time. Kids are happier and less irritable on a schedule. For example, feed them and put them to bed at a specific time everyday. Also, have some time for fun, make this time just for relaxing, for the whole family. Education is one the most important things in our present life, to get your kid used to learning you must start teaching them some educational things at home. You can do this by creating entertaining methods of learning, therefore your kid will not get bored and will actually like it. Respect should be returned by both parent and child. In order for you to do so, you will need to share with them some of the decisions we take on daily basis. This will not only make them respect you and love you more but it will also give them a sense of responsibility. At last be your kids friend, dont just be a parent, but actually try getting closer to them and befriending them. This will let them grow up to be well rounded individuals, because of their parents. Not in spite of them. Finally, I advise people to be patient when it comes to raising kids, especially now days. As i have mentioned before try earning your kids respect, give them responsible sensitive parenting, and stick to routines because it will help a lot. The family teaches us about the importance of knowledge, education, hard works and effort. It teaches us about enjoying ourselves, having fun, keeping fit and healthy. - Kamisese Mara.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Writing On The Philosophy Of Immanuel Kant Philosophy Essay

Writing On The Philosophy Of Immanuel Kant Philosophy Essay Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was born in Konigsberg, East Prussia. It is said of him that his failures are more important than most mens successes. Kant has contributed his literary knowledge in different areas of human inquiry. These include science for example astronomy, biology and philosophy. Here we are concerned with his moral writings. Kant argues against the skepticism of the eighteenth century, that scientific and moral laws can not be discovered. Failure in doing so results from the fault in procedure that is being followed i.e., using empirical data as the source of knowledge. Reason not empirical evidence can lead us in knowing both scientific and moral laws. He says, for the sake of explanation, that human mind works according to certain laws namely the categories of understanding. Causality, for example, is one of the categories that tell us that for every event there is a cause, helping in understanding the natural phenomenon. It is not the observation of sequence of cause and effect of natural phenomena , cause preceding the effect in the that help us understand these phenomena, but the ability of human mind that shapes or gives sequential order to the cause and effect principle in a given phenomena. Moreover, these categories of understanding are a priori. These come before our experience. In this way the source of all understanding and certainty of knowledge is human reason. Thus we are able to discover and infer the nature around us through our rationality and reasoning capacity. Now applying the same principle Kant tells us that certainty of knowing the moral law can be achieved through reason and rational nature because this alone is same and common in humans. Similarly, the source of this law is a priori; it comes before experience not after it. Rather it provides the basis for our understanding and appreciating our experience. Nevertheless, experience can not provide the ground for morality because it is different in everyone and is influenced by varieties of desires and tastes. That universal moral law is objective i.e. within our mind, which is universal to all human beings. Human conscience for example is universal. This law leads to the formation of ethical system that is universally both in scope and in content pertaining to humanity. Similar moral values would result from such a moral law which is valid for all human beings. The moral actions should be consistent with their reason. These should be acceptable to each and every individual. These moral principles should be consistently binding upon all individual, because of there rational being. Such moral principle, says Kant is a test of consistency that a man can will that all men, including him, should act upon is called the categorical imperative. Thus right actions are those which are applicable to and consistent with acceptability of all other individuals. Wrong actions, however, are those which are not applicable to and consistent with acceptability of all other individuals. Categorical imperative not only helps us in distinguishing right from wrong actions but also binds us in doing right and avoiding wrong actions, because each rational man is obligated to follow reason. Categorical imperative enables us to establish our moral duties. Constructing his moral philosophy in detail, Kant say that there are good and bad actions. But morality of such actions has no intrinsic value. These actions have no value when done out of good will. Good will is something which is without any qualification good. Talents of human mind intelligence, wit and judgment and gifts of fortune such as power, riches, honor, health and happiness must be qualified by a good will. Otherwise, these can be engaged in any negative sense to individual or society. Even so much so that there are some qualities namely moderation in affection and passions, self control and calm deliberation are of service to good will itself. These qualities may facilitate the performance of goodwill. Even these qualities can not be called a good without qualifying them with a good will. Because a calmness and self control of a notorious person proves to more dangerous than that of villain devoid of these attributes. In addition, good will has moral value which is not liable to be influenced by the consequences it produces. For example if an individual has a good will but his efforts for telling the truth lead him into danger then his good will, assumedly, has lost its incorrectly so, value because of the bad consequence of his righteousness. Rather good will is good in itself, it is not good because it achieves good results or is bad because it results in bad consequences. The aim of human reason is not attaining happiness but to engender a good will. Reason is the means to produce or cultivate the end which is good will. Happiness can not be the end of the reason because the more the reason is cultivated the more sophistication is acquired and the more burdened feels a man. Human instinct could aim at the end of happiness. But nature has chosen reason for rational human beings as a means to attain the end i.e, good will. Kant then proceeds to discuss the relation between goodwill and duty. He says that a good will is one which is done for the sake of the duty. Actions done in this sense would have moral worth. He is talking about good actions not bad ones because these are not done for the sake of duty rather done against it. In explaining this concept of duty he gives such examples as a man who due to misfortunes in life is in distress has lost all charm in life. He is on the verge of collapsing decides to live and continue living; for the sake of duty of being alive is acting in accordance with his duty and only such action done out of duty qualified by good will have moral worth. In addition, Kant distinguishes the merely praise worthy behavior from moral action. All those actions having appreciative social value have no moral worth if done out of any personal inclination of gain what so ever. Moral worthy actions are those performed only for the sake of duty out of good will. He then states his ethical propositions. Firstly, an action has moral worth when it is done out of duty. Secondly, an action done out of duty do not derive its moral worth from the consequences it engenders, well or worse, but because of following the principle of duty. Thirdly, in his own word, duty is the necessity of acting from respect for the law. Duty is known as any morally right action done in direct contrast to ones own inclination or of any external influences, out of good will objectively for the sake of the law and subjectively for pure respect of the law. Kant now expounds the idea of categorical imperative. Categorical imperative is test of any action. The action either is consistent with the universal law or is not consistent with it. For example, he states that is it prudent or is it right for a man to keep a false promise. Its answer may be difficult to given, but it can be provided by testing its maxims or statements in universal law or universal terms. For example is it prudent to make false promises this maxim if universally evaluated would not stand as becoming a universal law because false promises can not be universalized. On the other hand, the second maximum when tested in terms of the universal, is it right to keep false promises can not be universalized either. Hence through categorical imperative we are able to distinguish this action being right or wrong. He then discusses the categorical from hypothetical imperative. An action done for the sake of duty out of good will is categorical. Hypothetical imperative is when and socially praise worth action done, not for the performance or doing duty but rather, for the sake of influence or what so ever consequence. Through categorical imperative, he further explains that, it guides us that we should only do that action of which maxims are able to with stand the test of universality. In Kant words, Act as if thy action were to become by thy will a Universal Law of Nature. Kant defines that categorical imperative is two fold test, firstly that maxims for moral action be universalized without logical contradiction, and secondly, that they be universal directives for action which do not bring the will into disharmony with itself by requiring it to will one thing for itself and another thing for others. Kant in order to illustrate gives four examples. Firstly, there is person who is despaired of his life and thinks of committing suicide. Then he asks himself this question is it not contradictory to shorten ones life out of self love, he then testing this maxim in the categorical form and universalizing it he finds it that nature has given him life to fulfill it and not to end it. This he finds can n ot be universalized. Secondly a person in dire need of money wishes to borrow money and not returning the sum again finds himself in dilemma find is it right to borrow money for self interest with no intention of returning the amount. He easily finds out universal law that his maxim stands in contrast to become a universal law, so he has not to do so. Thirdly, another person who is naturally gifted with some arts lets his talent rust because of sensual indulgences or idleness. He then being a rational being ask himself that is right to devalue ones natural gifts which he has been endowed with can this maxim with stand the universal law. This is easily not so because letting ones talents die does not stand to categorical imperative. Fourthly, a person in good condition sees other people in neediness thinks that it is not my concern to help them. And he neither enviess them or despises them and does not desire there despair. In such a situation for these its not the end of their life rather they would live and could get help. And for this person this maxim might with stand to categorical test but his will as rational being would not be at ease with his maxim of being indifferent to needy people because he can imagine that sometimes in life humans, including himself, need help of others so he can not let such a will to be universaliz ed. Thus all of the four people discover there course of moral conduct by applying the categorical principle to there personal cases. There after he stipulates the social implication of the universal principle of categorical imperative. The humans are rational beings. They are not object of any kind. There very nature demands them as being an end in them. So they shall never be treated as mere means rather ends in them. Human beings shall be respected impartially and avoid exploitation. Because the rational nature of man is an end in itself, thus by my point of view I am subjectively an end in my self. Whereas with respect to all other individual which is objective viewing rational human beings, they due to there very rational nature, are end in themselves. Kant thus defines this as practical imperative, So act as to treat humanity, whether in thin own person or in that of any other, in every case as an end withal, never as means only. Kant further states that regarding any of the maxims human beings should always be treated as an end not as means. In all the maxims the supreme condition must be that human being ar e an end then it be universalized. Kant at last having put his moral philosophy argues that only an ethical system based on rational basis can best provide us a system which is not only consistent with human reason but also consistent with universal agreement. Moreover source and force of applicability with human nature i.e. its binding force comes from within. Whereas an ethical system based on empirical evidence of human history and his behavior can never be agreed upon and has no binding force.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Ozzie Freedman Portrayed as a Hero Essay example -- essays research pa

Ozzie Freedman Portrayed as a Hero   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A hero can be defined as one who inspires through manners and actions; who leads through personal example. Under this definition, the character Ozzie Freedman from Philip Roth’s â€Å"The Conversion of the Jews† (1959) can be classified as a hero. The sections of Discoveries: Fifty Stories of the Quest (Schechter & Semekis 1992): The Call, The Other, The Journey, Helpers and Guides, The Treasure, and Transformation, can be applied to the story about Ozzie to support it’s inclusion in this class, entitled â€Å"Myth of the Hero†.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The chapter on The Call describes that a hero may be â€Å"on the brink of a decisive change† (21) and they â€Å"perceive the danger of remaining where they are† (22). The hero must be â€Å"ready †¦ to leave [his] old, familiar [life] behind and move on to something new† (23). In â€Å"The Conversion of the Jews†, we see Ozzie questioning his faith and going against the Jewish teaching by believing that God could â€Å"let a woman have a baby without having intercourse† (384). He stood up to the rabbi in class and was prepared to defend his questioning and beliefs.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Other is a character who embodies the exact opposite personality of the protagonist. According to Schechter & Semekis, the Other causes self-revelation in the protagonist, which his journey would not begin without. In Roth’s story, Itzie is Ozzie’s best friend, who does not question authority or his faith, quite the opposite of Ozzie. He gives Ozzie a hard time for always asking questions and speaking out in class. (‘â€Å"What do you open your mouth all the time for?†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (383)). Ozzie realizes he doesn’t want to be like Itzie and blindly accept the Jewish belief about Jesus. He defends his right to question something in order to seek validity, and says, ‘â€Å"Itz, I thought it over for a solid hour, and now I’m convinced God could do it.†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Discoveries describes The Journey as a portrayal of â€Å"how difficult the hero’s quest is† (8). In Roth’s story, Ozzie faces â€Å"external enemies, agents of conservatism or conformity that must be overcome† (Schechter & Semekis, 8). He is speaking out against the Jewish religion, saying that he believes God could impregnate a woman without her having intercourse. When he delivers this defiance to Rabbi Binder, he is... ...nbsp;  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  By applying the theory of the hero’s journey as found in Discoveries: Fifty Stories of the Quest and applying it to Roth’s â€Å"The Conversion of the Jews†, we see that the character Ozzie Freedman truly fits the title of a hero. Ozzie questions his religious beliefs and is not ashamed to bring forth his insight and seek answers and new ways of thinking. He winds up teaching his mentor a lesson in religion and sets out to have his message heard, despite the possibility of ridicule and even death. Once he realizes he has a different belief than the people of the Jewish religion, he understands his life will never be the same and that he cannot go back to the Jewish belief that God is not able to produce a child without intercourse. Ozzie gets his message across, that one should never be punished for his beliefs, and he is then born into a new day and a new life journey. Works Cited Roth, Philip. â€Å"The Conversion of the Jews.† Discoveries: Fifty Stories of the Quest. 2nd ed. Harold Schechter and Jonna Gormely Semekis. New York: Oxford, 1992. Schechter, Harold, and Jonna Gormely Semekis. Discoveries: Fifty Stories of the Quest. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford, 1992.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Par, Inc.

Here is the report about Par, Inc. , is a major manufacturer of golf equipment test whether the new ball drive longer distance than the current model. To compare the driving distances for the two balls, 40 simple tests both of new and current models were subjected to distance tests. According to the data, we got the information we need for a hypothesis test as follow: | Current| New| Means| 269. 42| 266. 67| Count | 40| 40| Standard Deviation| 8. 09| 9. 79| Confidence Level(95. 0%)| 2. 59| 3. 13| | | The 40 simple of both current and new model golf balls show that the average distance of the new ball drive is less than the current model, but the standard deviation of new ball is 9. 79 which is larger than the current one and It imply the new ball is not stable as the current one, it has more chance drive longer or shorter than the current model. But at present, we can’t get the conclusion which ball drive longer distance, So we need a hypothesis test the difference of this two ball models.The hypothesis test suggested follows: H0:Â µ 1-Â µ 2? 0 Ha:Â µ 1-Â µ 2>0 We use this formula for a hypothesis test to compare the driving distance of the current and new golf balls. After analyses, we get the conclusion that we can’t reject the null hypothesis. Because this is a hypothesis test about two different populations, standard deviation of population is unknown and we use t-test and the p-value we got equals 0. 09 which is much bigger than the confidence level of 0. 05. So it is Type? error and we do not reject the null hypothesis.And we recommend the company to use the new model, that there is more chance to drive longer distance. The confidence interval we got for each model and or the difference between the means of the two populations are given below: Current: 266. 83~272. 00 New:263. 54~269. 80 The difference between two populations: -1. 26~6. 74 As the interval show above, at the level of 95% confidence, the distance current ball can drive is between 266. 83 and 272. 00 and the new one can drive between 263. 54 and 269. 80.And the new ball can drive longer distance till 6. 74 than the current one, but it is possible that the new ball drive shorter distance than the current till 1. 26. I think simple sizes for this test is not enough. Because the population of ball is very big and there are only 40 simples testing. We make assumption that the population of the ball is 1000 the simple size now is 5 and the proportion is 40/1000 and NP equals 1. 6, N (1-P) equals 38. 4. The NP is smaller than 5 so. We need more simple sizes to make the test much exactly.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

A Critique Paper for Scent of Apples by Bienvenido Santos Essay

The story of â€Å"Scent of Apples by Bienvenido Santos is told in a first person point of view in a persona of a Filipino immigrant way back in the war period in America. This is a written account of an unforgettable experience of the author with another Filipino immigrant named Celestino Fabia. The structuralism’s approach/theory was used to analyze this literary text as well as for in depth understanding. The author presented the literary text in a detailed and in a chronological manner with the use of overflowing adjectives and vivid descriptions. The first and second paragraph introduced the setting and the governing mood of the entire story. The perfect play of words and adjectives was the weapon of the author to give a concrete picture of the setting and to let the reader feel the real emotions existing in every scenes and conversations/dialogues. â€Å"When I arrived in Kalamazoo, it was October and the war was still on. Gold and silver stars hung on pennants above silent windows of white and bricked-red cottages. In a backyard, an old man burned leaves and twigs while a grey-haired woman sat on a porch, her red hands quiet on her lap. Watching the smoke rising above the elms, both of them thinking of the same thought perhaps about a tall, grinning boy with blue eyes and flying hair, who went out to war, where could he be now this month when leaves were turning into gold and the fragrance of gathered apples was in the wind.† â€Å"It was a cold night when I left my room at the hotel for a usual speaking engagement. I walked but a little way. A heavy wind coming up from Lake Michigan was icy on the face. It felt like winter straying early in the northern woodlands. Under the lampposts, the leaves shone like bronze. And they rolled on the pavement like the ghost feet of a thousand autumns long dead, long before the boys left for faraway lands without apple trees, the singing and the gold.† The style of the author in presenting/narrating the story through an introduction then, inserting conversation/dialogues was quite appealing. It does not make the story so monotonous, thus it became more flavorful in spite the sadness and gloominess of the mood of the story. â€Å"It was the same night I met Celestino Fabia, â€Å"just a Filipino farmer† as he called himself, who had a farm about thirty miles east of Kalamazoo.† â€Å"You came all that way on a night like this just to hear me talk?† I asked. â€Å"I’ve seen no Filipino for so many years now,† he answered quickly. â€Å" So when I saw your name in the papers where it says you come from the Islands and that you’re going to talk, I come right away. Earlier that night I had addressed a college crowd, mostly women. It appeared that they wanted me to talk about my country†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..† The highlight of the story started when Celestino Fabia reminisces the past when he was still in his own country. The descriptions were so vivid, that the readers would feel the same emotion Celestino was feeling during that situation. â€Å"But sometimes, you know, I miss that house: the roosting chicken and low-topped walls. I miss my brothers and sisters. Mother sitting in her chair, looking like a pale ghost in a corner of the room†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.† Celestino Fabia, as one of the main characters was not exactly describe by the author, except mentioning him as â€Å"just a Filipino farmer†. His style of giving the description was through his narration during their conversation and dialogues. It is a good way of spicing up a literary text. Ruth’s role in the story affirmed the sadness and seclusion of Celestino. The failure of providing his family a more comfortable life made him lonelier and regretful. It was stated in this paragraph: â€Å" Finally we rounded a deep curve and suddenly came upon a shanty, all but ready to crumble in a heap on the ground, its plastered walls were rolling away, the floor was hardly a foot from the ground. I thought of the cottages of the poor colored folk in the south, the hovels of the poor everywhere in the land. This one stood all by itself as though by common consent all the folk that used to live here had decided to stay away, despising it, ashamed of it. Even the lovely season could not color it beauty.† As a whole, the very weapon of this literary text is its own language. The author successfully played with the language. He used a lot of metaphors as well as colorful analogies. It made the text so interesting. Each descriptions of the place, of the situation and of the characters appeals to one or more of the reader’s senses. Indeed, the author successfully conveyed his message through his effective command of the language. WALANG SUGAT The Marxist literary theory was used to analyze this literary text as well as for in depth understanding Social struggle has been a long time issue since the start of civilization. Financial and social status, political standpoint and stability, and religious beliefs are among the main reasons and basis why this struggle exists in a certain society. In the Philippines, the Spanish regime brought forth the prominence of this struggle among our ancestors. Many Filipinos experienced many injustices and malpractices during that time that led the rise of Philippine Revolution. Thus, the play/drama â€Å"Walang Sugat† was staged to depict the lives of many Filipinos and the abusive governance of the Spaniards. â€Å"Walang Sugat†, a drama originally written by Severino Reyes is in three acts first released in 1902 and was set during the Philippine revolution. It is about the romantic relationship of Tenyong and Julia and their social and political struggles. Tenyong, as the main protagonist suffered from the many injustices of the Spaniards. His father was killed without any valid reason. The parents of his beloved Julia were against in their relationship because his social status. These reasons caused him to join the revolution and leave Julia behind. Political and financial power forced Julia to marry a wealthy man. The society where they lived dictates they way they will run their lives, thus she was obliged to agree to whatever it will bring. For a person to reach a higher social and political status, he/she must gain money. Julia was the way of their parents to reach that certain status in the society. Social struggle changed the lives of Tenyong and Julia. They were forced to do things they don’t want to do. Their story is just one representation of how society affects human lives. Social struggle will never stop as long as greed and personal agendas reigns in every human.

Parenting Styles Essay

Researchers have studied parenting styles extensively. Many studies have aimed to find a greater connection that shows the impact of each parenting style on the development of the child and how its influence in various aspects of life including self-confidence, self-esteem, academic achievement, and personality. This study used previous empirical research to examine the various impacts of parenting styles on children’s developmental processes. This study begins with a review of the classical studies of Baumrind (1991) and Maccoby (2000). Maccoby used 12 scholarly articles published between 2007 and 2013. Many of the findings in the research support the notion that the authoritative parenting style is the most advantageous in child development. Parenting Styles and their Impact on Child Development Developmental psychologists are interested in comprehending how parents influence their children’s development. However, many of these psychologists have not yet found an actual cause and effect connection between the actions of parents and children’s behaviors. In various cases, researchers have observed that even children who are raised in drastically different environments grew up to have personalities that are very similar to one another. On the other hand, children who share a home and are raised in similar environments often grow up with extremely different personalities from one another. While this counterintuitive phenomenon exists, researchers have uncovered many connections between parenting styles and their effects on children. The effects of parenting styles on children were examined to determine whether parents have a significant impact on their children’s development. It is widely accepted from layman science that children learn many aspects and acquire many of their personality traits from their social lives and the environments in which they are brought up. The question that lingers is exactly how much parents actually influence their children in terms of genetics compared to their development after birth and throughout childhood? Psychologists agree that a child’s learning curve is partially based on the timetable at which development begins and is defined as how fast an infant learns to walk and talk, and progress through other developmental milestones. Society has made it the parents’ responsibility to develop their children according to the standards, morals, and values within each society. This responsibility includes teaching the children how to behave while at home, around friends and family, and while in public. Society expects children to act in a specific way, which may include not pestering their parents, behaving in an appropriate manner in public, and participating in household chores. However, the outcome of a child acting in such a way depends on how the parents have fostered these ideas within the child, which is a determinate to the growth and development of the child’s personality. A child’s development does not only depend on the environment and parenting styles involved. To some extent, predispositions such as genetics are also potential factors that can significantly impact growth and development of the child. This study used the classical works of Baumrind (1991), Maccoby (2000), and Martin as a framework upon which further research concerning this topic can be carried out. A thorough discussion of the work of these researchers provides the opportunity to draw conclusions in which to answer the following question: To what extent does parenting style impact on child development? Materials and Methods This research did not use an experimental study; rather, it is classified as a qualitative analysis in which a review of literature was conducted to draw conclusions on the research topic. Therefore, this study is more of a literature review in which previous works on the impact of parent styles on child development are discussed. For example, this study scrutinizes the works of Maccoby (2000) who obtained data from other studies and analyzed it to her specifications. Maccoby assessed several studies and found that the methods used include observations on child-parent interactions, interview, and reviews of various records of participants. This study used a minimum of 12 scholarly articles been published in the last 5 to 6 years using an empirical research method. This review allowed the researcher to make recommendations, based on recent research, on best practices in assessing the significance of parenting styles on child development. This study used only experimental studies to provide a basis of legitimacy based observed  data. Before recent research is assessed, a background of this topic is established by summarizing the classical works of Baumrind (1991), Maccoby, and Martin. Difference between Parenting Style and Practice Before the works of researchers are discussed, it is important to highlight the difference between parenting styles and parenting practices. According to Spera (2005), it is essential and imperative to comprehend the difference between parenting styles and parenting practices. Spera noted that parenting practices is defined as specific behaviors use to socialize with their children. An example of such socialization is when parents sit down with their children to guide them with their homework or when they set aside a specific time for reading or making school a top priority by attending school events such as parent-teacher conferences. These actions show that parents have a desire for their children to do well in school. On the other hand, parenting style is more of a characterization of the emotional climate that surrounds in the environment in which parents rear their children. According to Baumrind (1991), parenting styles can be characterized over several dimensions in which parental responsiveness and demand is asserted on the child. Baumrind, Maccoby, & Martin: Theories of Parenting Styles and Child Rearing Baumrind (1966) developed a theory on parenting styles that proposed that parents fall into one of three categories of parenting styles, authoritarian, indulgent, or authoritative. Baumrind later expanded this theory and included a fourth parenting style known as negligent. The typologies of Baumrind’s parenting styles were concluded after conducting extensive research using interviews and observations with parents and children. Participants included 32 middle class white families who were observed in a nursery school setting. The methods of naturalistic observation, parent interviews, and other research methods resulted in four important dimensions of parenting, disciplinary strategies, warmth and nurturance, communication style, and expectations of maturity and control. Baumrind’s (1966) parenting styles included authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent/permissive, and negligent/uninvolved. The proposed parenting styles have different consequences on children regarding competence and development based on social and cognitive traits. Additionally, each style differs in terms of behaviors, standards, and values that parents expect  their children to adopt. Authoritarian Parenting Under the authoritarian parenting style, children are expected to follow a strict set of rules established by the parents. If the child fails to follow these rules, the parents will administer some sort of punishment. Observations suggest that parents who use this parenting style tend to fail when it comes to explaining the reason(s) behind their rules. When parents were asked to explain the reason(s) behind rules, the most common answer was, â€Å"I said so, that’s why.† These parents also tend to have high demands but are not very responsive of their children. According to Baumrind (1966), these parents tend to be obedience- and status-oriented, and they expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation. Authoritative Parenting The authoritative parenting style is similar to authoritarian as parents who operate under this style also have established rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However, this style differs in that it is more democratic in the sense that authoritative parents respond to their children and are willing to listen to questions that the children might have. For example, if a child were to fail to meet any of the established expectations, these parents would be more nurturing and forgiving, rather than simply administering a punishment. According to Baumrind (1966; 1991), these parents tend to monitor and impart clear standards concerning conduct and behavior. Additionally, these parents are not assertive but may be more intrusive and restrictive. The disciplinary methods of the parents are more supportive as they want their children to be assertive, socially responsible, self-regulated, and cooperative. Indulgent/Permissive Parenting Permissive parents tend to make very few demands on their children. These parents are known to rarely discipline their children because of their low expectations of maturity and self-control. These parents are also more responsive than they are demanding, and they are considered nontraditional and lenient. Parents known to use this style do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and tend to avoid confrontation. These parents are also nurturing and communicative with their children, and they are usually found taking the status of a friend rather than a parent. Negligent/Uninvolved Parenting Negligent or uninvolved parents tend to have very few to no demands, low responsiveness, and very little to no communication. These parents fulfill the basic needs of their children; however, they are very much detached from their children’s lives. Observed in extreme cases of negligent parenting, these parents might even reject or neglect the needs of their children. Baumrind’s (1966) initial study of child development has led other researchers to conduct studies to elaborate on this work. Maccoby (2000) found some impact of these parenting styles on children’s development. Maccoby’s work extended the research on the influence of parenting style and that of the genetic makeup of the child, which she proposed effects behavioral characteristics. Maccoby also proposed that genetics also influences the way in which parents treat their children. Maccoby (2000) used twin and adoption studies to provide a logical basis to estimate the strength of genetic effects. Her study found that heritability estimates for a given trait vary widely. Maccoby argued that basing assumptions on the strength of genetic factors were not enough because they are not sufficient to develop a basis to make such estimations because of additional environmental factors that are involved. If researchers make these assumptions, they will systematically underestimate parenting effects. Maccoby believed and established that children’s genetic predispositions and their parent’s parenting style are interconnected and that they function, which results in the overall effect of a child’s development. According to the studies conducted by Maccoby, each parenting style as the following influences on children: 1. Authoritarian parenting. This parenting style leads children to be very obedient and proficient. However, they will end up ranking lower in the amount of happiness, social competence, and self-esteem. 2. Authoritative parenting. Parents, who raise their children using this style, have children who are happier, capable, and successful individuals. 3. Permissive/Indulgent. Parents with this style of parenting will have children with low amounts of happiness and self-regulation. These children also have significant problems with authority and tend to perform  poorly in school. 4. Negligible/Uninvolved. Parents who use this style of parenting have children who rank the lowest across almost all domains of life. Many of these children demonstrate a lack of self-control, low self-esteem, and are known to be less competent than their peers. Many researchers agree that the authoritative parenting style is the most advantageous of all the parenting styles. When children comprehend and perceive their parents’ requests to be reasonable and fair, they are more likely to conducting themselves according to those requests (Bernstein, 2011). Another reason for the successfulness of this parenting style is that children are more likely to accept the rationale for behavior as their own, which results in a greater amount of self-control (Bernstein, 2011). Recent Studies Many recent studies have been conducted on the effects of parenting styles on the development of children. Such research has focused on the effects parenting styles have on in regards to academic performance and level of education. Hernandez (2013) examined the impact of parenting styles on self-efficacy and level of education among Latinos. The study included 199 participants who ranged in age from 25 to 79. The researcher used a correlational method to configure the effects of parenting. Hernandez found a positive correlation between the level of education of both parents and participants’ levels of education. Rinaldi and Howe (2012) found those mothers’ and fathers’ self-reported parenting styles explained 44% of the variance found among youngsters’ externalizing behaviors. Their study included 59 families with children aged 32 months. Recent studies have also shown that children’s externalizing behaviors are negatively and moderately associated with fathers’ authoritative styles, and positively associated with fathers’ authoritarian styles. Additionally, studies have shown that children’s internalizing behaviors are positively correlation with fathers’ authoritarian style of parenting (Schary, Cardinal, & Loprinizi, 2012a; 2012b, & Loprinizi, Schary, Beets, Leary, & Cardinal, 2013). Recent studies have found connections between parenting styles and child development, specifically, on school achievement. Kordi and Baharudin (2010) reviewed empirical studies on school-related achievements. The researchers found that the authoritative parenting style was highly associated with higher  levels of school achievement. However, Kordi and Baharudin noted that these findings are inconsistent between cultures and across various societies. Cramer (2002) examines the relationship between parenting styles and classroom motivation. The researcher found that mothers’ authoritative parenting was positively correlated with first graders’ mastery of concepts in motivation. Based on this finding, Cramer suggested that authoritative parenting leads to higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Conversely, fathers’ authoritarian parenting was significantly and positively correlated with first and third graders’ motivation and teachers’ perceptions of children’s classroom motivation (Cramer, 2002). Hong (2012) also expanded on Baumrind’s (1966; 1991) parenting styles and their effects on the children’s schooling. She examined the ways in which parenting style impacted child’s behavior and found that the influence yielded predictive effects on children’s academic achievements. Hong (2012) also found a correlation between parenting style and children’s behaviors, which eventually defines their academic achievements. The researcher also found that child’s academic achievement is a result of the mix between parenting style and parenting practices they exert in the child’s environment. Conclusion Although significant research has been conducted to find connections between parenting style and child development, more effort is needed to find an exact cause and effect relationship between these two variables. Through various studies were reviewed here, it seems that the authoritative parenting style produces the most advantageous and positive impacts on a child’s development and academic achievement. Exactly to what extent this parenting style has on children needs further study. To understand the extent of the influence of parenting styles better, the inclusion of parenting practices also need to be considered. Such research can be used to create practices for parents to follow, to aid their children in becoming fully developed adults and influence their development in a positive way. References Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development, 37(4), 887-907. Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 56-95. Bernstein, D. A. (2011). Essentials of psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Cramer, K. E. (2002). The influences of parenting style on children’s classroom motivation. Retrieved from /Cramer_thesis.pdf Hernandez, M. (2013). The impact of parenting styles on Latinos’ level of education and self-efficacy. Retrieved from Hong, E. (2012). Impacts of parenting on children’s schooling. Journal of Student Engagement: Education Matters, 2, 36-41. Kordi, A., & Baharudin, R. (2010). Parenting attitude and style and its effect on children’s school achievements. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 2, 217-222. Loprinizi, P. D., Schary, D. P., Beets, M. W., Leary, J., & Cardinal, B. J. (2012). Association between hypothesized parental influences and preschool children’s physical activity behavior. American Journal of Health Education, 4, 9-18. doi:10.1080/19325037 .2012.749685 Maccoby, E. E. (2000). Parenting and its effects on children: On reading and misreading behavior genetics. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, p. 1-27. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych .51.1.1 Rinaldi, C. M. & Howe, N. (2012). Mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles and association with toddlers’ externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(2), 266-273. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.08.001 Schary, D. P., Cardinal, B. J. & Loprinizi, P. D. (2012a). Parenting style associated with sedentary behavior in preschool children. Early Child Development and Care, 182(8), 1015-1026. doi:10.1080/03004430.2012.678596 Schary, D. P., Cardinal, B. J. & Loprinizi, P. D. (2012b). Parental support exceeds parenting style for promoting active play in preschool children. Early Child Development and Care, 182, 1057-1069. doi:10.1080/03004430.2012.685622 Spera, C. (2005). A review of the relationship among parenting practice, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17, 125-146. doi:10.1007/s10648-005-3950-1