Monday, September 30, 2019
Language and culture are closely connected and inseparable, as a language idiom is the essence of the deposition of the fascinating history and culture. Because of geography, history, religion, customs and other aspects of life differences between Chinese and English Idioms carrying characteristics of the different cultures and cultural information, so English-Chinese Idioms often encounter many difficulties. From the geographical environment, historical background, customs and religious beliefs described four aspects of cultural differences between Britain and China on the impact of the formation of their respective idioms, and detailed description of English Idioms translation to deal with this cultural difference in several commonly used translation . Keywords: language; culture; cultural differences; Idioms Translation 1, English idioms and cultural differences reflected in the (A) The environmentÃ The natural environment is mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s survival and the basis for the development of different natural environment of the formation and development of national culture have different effects. Chinese people living in the vast expanse of fertile continent of East Asia, China since ancient times is a large agricultural country, the land in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives is vital. Therefore, there is a considerable portion of Chinese agriculture and land-related idioms. Such as Ã¢â¬Ëgood weatherÃ¢â¬ dead endÃ¢â¬ exterminationÃ¢â¬ big spendersÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. Britain is an island surrounded by water. Maritime history, have been living in a world leader, so in English and will have a lot of water, fish, and marine-related idiom. Such as weak as water (fragile), drink like a fish (booze), to miss the boat (missed opportunities), all at sea (a loss). In the Chinese cultural atmosphere, the Ã¢â¬ËwindÃ¢â¬â¢ that is Ã¢â¬Ëspring windÃ¢â¬â¢, in the summer heat often associated with the Ku Shu, Ã¢â¬Ëscorch like fireÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËJiaoyangsihuoÃ¢â¬â¢ is often used to describe the summer term . The United Kingdom is located in the western hemisphere north temperate zone, is a marine climate, the report is that the message of spring westerly, the British poet ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËWest Wind SongÃ¢â¬â¢ (ode to the west wi nd) is the right spring Acura. EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s summer season is warm and pleasant, often with Ã¢â¬ËlovelyÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËmoderateÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËOKÃ¢â¬â¢ connected. Shakespeare in his sonnets in one compared to the summer of love, Shall I compare thee to asummerÃ¢â¬â¢s day? Thou are more lovely and more temperate. (B) The historical allusionÃ From a certain point of view that language is a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural memory and precipitation, the large number of Chinese idioms are based on the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s history, economy, culture, traditions, habits, formed the basis, with a strong national cultural characteristics of and far-reaching social and historical origins, often can not be understood from the literal meaning and translation. Such as Ã¢â¬Ëmere copycatÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËMinglasunshanÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëlose the wife of another soldier offÃ¢â¬ Three Stooges, the top one wiseÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. English idioms idioms come from the Ã¢â¬ËBibleÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Greek and Roman mythology, but also have their specific content, such as AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢heel (the only fatal weakness), meetoneÃ¢â¬â¢s waterloo (suffered a crushing defeat), a PandoraÃ¢â¬â¢s box (PandoraÃ¢â¬â¢s box), the Trojanhorse (Trojan horse from Greek mythology), arrow of Cupid ( , from Roman mythology). (C) The difference between practice In traditional Chinese culture, the dragon is a symbol of auspicious animals. In feudal society, imperial dragon is a symbol, authority and elegance. Thus, in Chinese and dragon-related idioms generally contain compliment. Such as Ã¢â¬ËDragon and Phoenix SucceedÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ChenglongkuaixuÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. However, myths and legends of the West, dragon wings, it is a long, scaly body, dragging a long tail, fire-breathing from the mouth of animals, it is terrifying. Therefore, as Long as the murderous havoc Westerners thing, to be eliminated. In addition, the dog in Chinese is a humble animal. Chinese idioms with dog-related mostly derogatory: Ã¢â¬ËFox Peng Dog PartyÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËGoujitiaoqiangÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëa dogÃ¢â¬â¢s mouth spit no ivoryÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on, while in the Western English-speaking countries, dogs are considered manÃ¢â¬â¢s most loyal friend . English idiom In addition to the dogÃ¢â¬â¢s part due to the impact of other languages, which includes a derogatory sense, most of them are not meant to be derogatory. Idioms in English, often with the dogÃ¢â¬â¢s image to describe human behavior. If Youare a lucky dog (you are one lucky), Every dog has his day (mortal Jieyou proud days). In contrast, the Chinese people are very loved cats, with the Ã¢â¬ËChan MaoÃ¢â¬â¢ metaphor man gluttonous, often intimate components, while in Western culture, Ã¢â¬ËcatÃ¢â¬â¢ is used to metaphor Ã¢â¬Ëa malicious womanÃ¢â¬â¢. (Iv) religious beliefs. Every nation has its own religious beliefs and religious culture, its peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s values and lifestyle of the formation and language have a subtle impact. In the long history of several thousand years, the Chinese nation is predominantly Buddhist and Taoist. Therefore, there are many Chinese Buddhism, Taoism-related idioms, such as Ã¢â¬ËJiehuaxianfo Ã¢â¬ RoadÃ¢â¬ Bearing in mind thatÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. In addition, the Chinese people still worship gods, such as Ã¢â¬Ëright and properÃ¢â¬ thank GodÃ¢â¬ Heaven always leaves people a way outÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. Chinese emperors also claim to be Ã¢â¬Ëtrue sons of the dragonÃ¢â¬â¢. In the United Kingdom and other Western countries, the greatest impact of religion is Christianity. In the Western mind, God has a supreme supernatural power. There are also a number of English idioms with the God-related idioms. If God helps those who help themselves (God helps those who help themselves), Man proposes, God disposes (Man proposes, God disposes days). Curse a person is often said that God damn you, danger often said after the Thank God, or God bless you. Christian doctrine Ã¢â¬ËBibleÃ¢â¬â¢ has been regarded as a classic of Western culture. Many English idioms is precisely because of this. Such as the finger on the wall (writing on the wall), cast oneÃ¢â¬â¢s bread upon the waters (really do good, without asking for anything). From the above aspects, we can see the impact of culture on idiom far-reaching and extensive. To correctly understand the English language learners and successful conduct of Idioms Idioms translation, we must first English-Chinese have a deep understanding of both cultures. Second, the main method Idioms Translation Translation is the conversion between the two languages, while the close relationship between language and culture conversion request must be in the language of cultural conversion. In view of this, the translator can not be literally literal translation, we must better understand the culture behind the literal information, using the original understanding of the original language and cultural knowledge to their own understanding, based on in another language such as that of the target language for the kinds of transformation, for the reader to pass the original translation accurate information, press Ã¢â¬Ëfunctional equivalenceÃ¢â¬â¢ principle so that Ã¢â¬Ëthe reader to reflect the sameÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore, the idioms translated the one hand, as far as possible with the original meaning of Ã¢â¬Ëthe most appropriate, the most natural reproduction of such words come outÃ¢â¬â¢, with NidaÃ¢â¬â¢s words, that is, Ã¢â¬ËThe best translation does no t sound like a translationÃ¢â¬â¢; the other On the one hand, but also make every effort to display the original cultural information on the translation readers to understand the cultural information contained in the original. Main methods are: reposted elsewhere in the paper for free Download Center http://www. hi138. com (A) Literal Translation. The so-called literal translation method, is not against the target language norms, and Lenovo are not under the conditions that caused the error in the translation to retain the original idiom metaphor, image and national, local features approach. It applies to some extent due to the use of a wide number of more of its literal meaning and metaphorical meaning has been widely accepted by the reader for the translation idioms. If a gentlemanÃ¢â¬â¢s agreement (a gentlemanÃ¢â¬â¢s agreement); armed to the teeth (armed to the teeth); to fish in troubled water (fish in troubled waters); paper tiger (paper tiger); (draw water in a bamboo basket). Literal translation of the advantage of being able to retain more complete image of the original idiom metaphor, ethnic style, color and language. However, if the interpreter too much or too literal translation properly, itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to make the reader feel funny or ridiculous, even give rise to misunderstanding or error association. Such as: (Until all is over, ambition never dies. ), The Pig falsely accuse the Chinese (To put blame on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s victim.) Ã¢â¬ËYellowÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËThe PigÃ¢â¬â¢ and other words have an obvious cultural traits, if the literal translation, foreign readers will not understand why, only to Ã¢â¬Ëfunctional equivalenceÃ¢â¬â¢ approach interpreter to readers in the East and the West has caused and is willing to match feelings. (B) literal explanation France In order to preserve the cultural information contained in the original, it is more use of literal, rather than paraphrase, but because of language rooted in the cultural soil is different from literal translation is likely to be ambiguous and vague. In this case, only in conjunction with appropriate annotation in order to pass the original text of cultural information. For example, a Don Juan (Don Juan, which means Merry prodigal son), to carry coals to New castle (coal to Newcastle, means superfluous, Newcastle Ã¢â¬â a British coal Center), N. (show off oneÃ¢â¬â¢s proficiency with axe before L u Ban, the master carpenter), mere copycat (The ugly imitates the beautiful in such a destroyed way that the ugliness of the ugly becomes worse. ). (C) the equivalent ILL Method. Idioms right and others are reflected in three aspects, namely metaphor meaning, form and emotional metaphors. Some English Idioms and Chinese idioms, whether in content or in form or emotional, both relatively close to this time, idioms translated to equivalent ILL method can be used, or apply the law synonymous idiom. This approach not only to retain the image of the source language, style, consistent with the target language the language of the structure and habits, allowing the reader to easily understand the text of the translation to convey meaning, and thus the smooth realization of cross-cultural exchange. Such as burn the boat (most drastic); greatminds think alike (Great minds think alike); turn a deaf ear to (ignored); a drop in the ocean (drop in the ocean). (D) translation method Translation method refers to the translation, to retain only the meaning of the original forms of expression rather than to retain the original method. When due to cultural differences can not be literally translated, nor synonymous idioms can be borrowed, together with the explanatory text then would lose the essence of the characteristics of idioms, it is best to avoid their cultural background and its meaning can be translated. If a skeleton in the cupboard (family scandal), driven to revolt (be forced to do something), (frankly speaking), volunteered (to volunteer oneÃ¢â¬â¢s service). Zhang Ling: Cultural differences and Idioms translation of this approach also applies to those using concrete and plain metaphor to illustrate the more abstract reasoning, and language vivid and witty tag line. Such as the Ã¢â¬Ëdonkey to see libretto Ã¢â¬â wait and seeÃ¢â¬â¢ can be translatedÃ as wait and see, Ã¢â¬Ëdog bites Lu Tung-pin, did not know good peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ can be translated to snap and snarl at a kind hearted man. 3, Conclusion English and each has its own cultural imprint colors and cultures between the two there is a large cultural differences. The impact of culture on idiom is multifaceted, non-English-Chinese translation of idioms is not. While the translation of idioms, especially those rich in cultural information, Idioms, and there is no fixed pattern in the end that the method should be adopted according to the context of flexible options. In addition, the process of translation the translator must not only consider the language of conversion, but also to enhance cultural awareness, from the standpoint of cross-cultural communication, using an appropriate mode of translation, try to eliminate the cross-cultural communication caused by cultural differences communication barriers, to achieve an accurate description of the purpose of a foreign culture. References:  Chen Ding-an. English Rhetoric and Translation [M]. Hong Kong: Commercial Press, 1996.  Ping-hong, Zhang Guoyang. English Idioms and Anglo-American culture, [M]. Beijing: Foreign Language Education and Research Press, 1999.  Hu Wenzhong. Introduction to Intercultural Communication [M]. Beijing: Foreign Language Education and Research Press, 1999.  Fang dream. Translation New Theory and Practice [M]. Qingdao: Qingdao Publishing House, 1999.  FENG Qing-hua. Practical Translation (update) [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2002.  Sun Hui-jun, ZHENG Qing-Zhu. Translation studies in the cultural shift [J]. Chinese translation, 2000, (05). Reposted elsewhere in the Research Papers Download http://www. hi138. com.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Hypothesis There will be a difference in tensile strength in blonde hair and black hair of similar thickness. Blonde hair will have a higher tensile strength than black hair when at similar thickness. Blonde hair has more sulphur-sulphur covalent bonds than black hair. Hair contains the protein keratin, which contains a large proportion of cysteine with S-S bonds. The disulphide bond is one of the strongest bonds known anywhere in nature. The cross-linking by disulphide linkages between the keratin chains accounts for much of the strength of hair. Blonde hair has more of these bonds therefore blonde hair will have a higher tensile strength and elasticity levels. Null Hypothesis There will be no difference in tensile strength between black hair and blonde hair of similar thickness. Blonde hair having more sulphide bridges will not mean that blonde hair has a higher tensile strength than black hair. Background Knowledge Hair has a very high tensile strength. It can hold up 60kg of weight before breaking. This high strength is due to its structure. Hair is made of the fibrous protein keratin. Figure 1 shows keratin molecules are made up of three helices. They are held together by strong covalent bonds called sulphur bonds. Eleven of these molecules group together to form a micro fibril. Then, hundreds of micro fibrils join together to form a single hair. Hair is made of cells called epithelial cells which are arranged in three layers. The inner most layer is the medulla, the middle layer is the cortex and the out layer is the cuticle. The medulla is mainly soft keratin and the cortex and cuticle are mainly hard keratin. This structure has great strength. The cuticle, the outermost layer, is where you find a lot of the protein keratin. The cortex is the thickest middle layer, providing strength and defining colour of hair. The cortex also gives the hair its elasticity and flexibility. The medulla, central core, gives hair its strength and breadth. The structure of keratin is maintained by numerous sulphur to sulphur covalent bonds. Keratin contains high concentrations of the amino acid cysteine. Every Cystine unit contains two cysteine amino acids in different chains which have come to lie near to each other and are linked together by two Sulphur atoms, forming a very strong chemical bond known as a disulphide bridge. Many disulphide bonds form down the length of the keratin chains, joining them together like the rungs of a ladder. The disulphide bond is one of the strongest bonds known anywhere in nature. This cross-linking by disulphide linkages between the keratin chains accounts for much of the strength of hair. A suitable amount of Sulphur Bridge is important in enhancing the elasticity of hair due to the strength of the disulphide bond. Within each hair bonds of a different kind, called hydrogen bonds also link the keratin chains. There are far more hydrogen bonds than disulphide linkages. The hydrogen bonds are much weaker than the disulphide linkages and more easily broken, and give hair its flexibility. Hydrogen bonds are broken apart when the hair is wetted, and form again when the hair dries. Hair used for the investigation must not be Ã¢â¬ËdamagedÃ¢â¬â¢ in any way, i.e; should not be dyed/coloured, permed, straightened, etc. The hair also must not be curly. I will be only looking at naturally straight hair for this investigation. Permed and dyed hair cause severe damage to hair by reducing and breaking disulphide bonds between protein amino acids (which keep the hair strong) and they change the chemistry of hair by altering the protein rich internal structure of the fibre. In perming, a mild reducing agent is used to break the sulphur bonds. The helices are unwound and the hair is styled. A gentle oxidising agent (usually hydrogen peroxide) is treated to the hair to make the sulphur bonds reform. This results in a Ã¢â¬Ëpermanent waveÃ¢â¬â¢. (Figure 3 shows the breaking and reforming of sulphur-sulphur bridges can produce permanent changes in the shape of protein molecules). Permed hair has only 90% of the original disulphide bonds, which leaves hair weaker than before it was permed. Heat (like from hair straighteners) disrupts the structural bonds (particularly weak Hydrogen bonds) enough to give hairs wounded around a roller some temporary curly aspect. However, this effect can be easily abolished by an increase in humidity or contact with water. Longer lasting permanents use chemicals such as thioglycolic acid to disrupt the disulphide bonds. Hairs to be tested with should not have their disulphide bonds damaged/broken or our hypothesis will become invalid even before the investigation takes place. Variables To ControlÃ¢â¬ ¦(keep the same) To investigateÃ¢â¬ ¦(measuring/changing) Hair MUST NOT be: Tensile Strength (masses applied on hair) co loured/dyed Thickness of hair/colour of hair straightened (by applying heat) permed (by applying heat) curly (naturally) from the same person Hair MUST be: black or blonde straight (naturally) from the same age group Equipment 2 X Clamp stand Ã¢â¬â to hold everything upright 2 X Clamp Ã¢â¬â to hold paperclip/hair and ruler 100cm ruler Ã¢â¬â to measure how far hair stretches before it breaks (tensile strength) 2 X paperclip Ã¢â¬â to hold hair and mass 10kg masses with holder Ã¢â¬â to put tension on hair Selotape Ã¢â¬â to hold loop of hair in paperclip 15 pieces of black hair Ã¢â¬â to compare 15 pieces of blonde hair Ã¢â¬â to compare Micrometer Ã¢â¬â to measure hair thickness Method 1. I will first take five pieces of hair randomly from six different people. Three of these people should have black hair and three should have blonde hair. My total numbers of hair should be fifteen black and fifteen blonde. Hair samples should be taken from six different people to make sure that a fair and accurate test takes place. For example if all fifteen black hairs were taken from the same person, it could just mean that that person had thicker hair than normal thickness of black hair. This would make my results invalid. I will take all hairs from the same age group (my age group, 17-18), to erase the Ã¢â¬Ëage of hair follicleÃ¢â¬â¢ variable when comparing its tensile strength. 2. I will set up the micrometer to measure each hair thickness by placing hair under lens and measuring its thickness using a shown scale. I will record each thickness in an appropriate table. 3. I will place a black hair and a blonde hair of similar thickness side by side. This will be done to compare tensile strength of hairs of similar thickness. 4. Equipment will be set up as shown in Figure 5, (below) to start investigation. The hair will be carefully put in. The meter rule should be touching the bottom of the clamp stand with 0cm at the top and 100cm at the bottom. I need to make sure the hair can not slip out of the paperclip from the bottom or the top. Everything must be secure. The length of the loop of hair formed should be similar as with all hairs being tested. The weight should not be added until the rest of the equipment has been set up accurately. 5. Once the hair is set up in with the equipment, I will measure how far down the hair is on the meter rule. (Look at Figure 4, for assistance). I will record this reading in a table similar to Table 1. 6. A mass of 10kg will be placed on the paperclip at the bottom only after first measurements have been taken. 7. I will add the masses slowly so when the hair breaks I have a better view of the length of the hair. 8. When I see the hair break I will record its maximum length in my table and the weight in kg applied on hair at that point, when it reached its maximum elasticity. 9. I will repeat this whole process for all the blonde hairs and the black hairs. I will do the hairs of similar thickness after one another. For example; a blonde hair of thickness x would be measured first than a black hair of thickness x would be measured. There will be six people in my group including me. Each person will test five hairs each. Hair B1 B1 B2 B2 B B B B no. length bfr W app length bfr breaking length stretched bfr breaking max W app bfr breaking (cm) (cm) (cm) 2 minus 1 (kg) 1 2 Statistical Test I will use the t-test because I am looking for a difference of tensile strength in black and blonde hair. I will be using actual measurements (e.g. weights), and will have a large data set (30 pairs of data). I am comparing two sets of data. Investigating the factors affecting tensile strength of human hair Implementing: (Skill B) Modifications * Four different colours of hair need to be used; to increase range of results and to make my conclusion more reliable. Ginger, Blonde, Black and Brown hairs will be used. * 30 strands of hair will be used for each colour. 5 hairs from 6 people for each colour will be taken. * An eyepiece graticule will be used to measure hair thickness. Similar thickness of hairs will be compared. * GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ hair will be used. There are two reasons for this: a) Girls have longer hair b) Hormones may affect hair strength. Girls and boys may have different hormones. * There should be a 10cm (100 mm) gap between each paperclip. (Figure 5). * A 10g weight must be used each time. * I will need to modify my Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis because instead of comparing just two colours of hair I am now comparing four different colours of hair. Hypothesis There will be a difference in tensile strength between brown, blond, ginger and black hairs of similar thickness. Blonde hair (lighter coloured hairs) has more sulphur-sulphur covalent bonds than black hair (dark coloured hairs). Hair contains the protein keratin, which contains a large proportion of cysteine with S-S bonds. The disulphide bond is one of the strongest bonds known anywhere in nature. The cross-linking by disulphide linkages between the keratin chains accounts for much of the strength of hair. Lighter coloured hair has more of these bonds therefore lighter coloured hair will have a higher tensile strength and elasticity levels. Null Hypothesis There will be no difference in tensile strength between brown, blonde, ginger and black hair of similar thickness. Lighter coloured hairs having more sulphide bridges will not mean that lighter coloured hairs have a higher tensile strength then dark coloured hair. * Now that I am not comparing just two sets of data I can no longer do the T-Test. I am comparing four sets of data. My data will be categorical. There is a simple statistical test which looks at the difference between observed and expected values and relates them to a probability level, thus making it possible to identify how likely it is that the values are significantly different. This test is called the Chi squared test. Precautions to ensure reliability * We are assuming ethnic background does not affect our results. It will not cause a massive variation in our conclusion. * All hair samples must be taken from 16-18 year old females. * 6 different samples must be taken for each colour of hair. * Make sure all equipment is set up; ensuring the strand of hair is fastened to the shown equipment correctly. (Figure 5). * Each hair is tested five times, so I am repeating the experiment, to make my results reliable and more accurate. Results (My own (raw data) results will be highlighted in dark red on tables 2, 3, 4 & 5). (The letter Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢ is used in my results to show where the hair broke). Investigating the factors affecting tensile strength of human hair Analysing: (Skill C) Calculations Strength is determined by the amount of stress a hair can withstand without breaking. To work out the strength of each hair I calculated the stress applied to each when breaking. To do all the calculations I used the following formulas: 1. Force (N) = Mass (g) X 0.001 X 9.8 E.g. 10 x 0.001 x 9.8 = Force (N) Force = 0.098N 2. Cross Sectional Area (Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½m2) = ?r2 E.g. 3.14 x 26 x 26 = Cross Sectional Area (Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½m2) Cross Sectional Area = 2122.64Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½m2 3. Stress (Nm-2) = Force (N) / (Cross Sectional Area (Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½m2)/1000000) E.g. 0.098 / (2122.64/1000000) = Stress Stress = 46.16892172 (Nm-2) 4. Strain = Extension (mm) / Original Length (mm) E.g. 32 / 100 = Strain Strain = 0.32 The tables on pages 14 to 36 show how I calculated my values to do the statistical test. Discussion Melanin molecules are proteins, which are produced at the root of each hair. The more melanin in your hair, the darker it will get. An amino acid called tyrosine is converted into melanin so the hair will have colour. First, the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s blood vessels carry tyrosine to the bottom of each hair follicle. Then, in this Ã¢â¬Ëmelanin factoryÃ¢â¬â¢ tyrosine is used as the raw material for the production of the natural melanin that is the colour in hair. In short, natural hair colour depends upon the presence, amount and distribution of melanin, a natural pigment found in the cortex. All natural hair colours are created from two types of melanin. Eumelanin = black pigment Pheomelanin = red/yellow pigment Mixed melaninÃ¢â¬â¢s = when both eumelanin and pheomelanin mix together inside one melanin granule. The natural colour of the hair is decided by: a) What type of melanin is in the hair b) How much melanin is in the hair c) How closely packed or scattered the melanin is within the cortex. The type of melanin and the size of the granules determine whether hair will be brown, blonde, ginger or black. The amount of melanin and its distribution determine how dark or light the hair colour will be. Black hair is created from granules full of eumelanin densely packed in the hairÃ¢â¬â¢s cortex. Brown hair, depending on its cool or warm tones and its darkness or lightness, is created either from granules filled with eumelanin and more sparsely distributed along the cortex than those of black hair, or granules filled with a blend of mixed melaninÃ¢â¬â¢s. The red/yellow pheomelanin is believed to cause the warm, golden, or auburn tones found in most brown hair. Blonde hair has a very low melanin content. And while scientists have not yet determined which is dominant, it is believed that eumelanin creates blonde hair. Melanin in blonde hair is so sparse that what we actually see is the colour of the hair fibre itself, keratin, which is a pale yellow, off-white shade. Granules filled with pheomelanin create Ginger hair. The pheomelanin in ginger hair is less densely packed in its granules. Its shape is somewhat more irregular than its black counterpart, eumelanin. It is slightly rounder and more spread out. From my results I found out that brown hair needed the greatest amount of force to break. Blonde hair needed the least amount of force to break. Black hair was second strongest and ginger hair was third strongest. The order of strength (from my results) of hair is as follows: Brown, Black, Ginger, and then Blonde. Brown hair stretched the most before breaking. Blonde hair stretched the least before breaking. Black hair stretched the second furthest and ginger hair stretched the third furthest. The order of length of hair stretched (from my results) before breaking is as follows: Brown, Black, Ginger, and then Blonde. Brown hair experienced the highest strain before breaking and blonde hair experienced the lowest strain before breaking. The order of strain experienced by hair (from my results) before breaking is as follows: Brown, Black, Ginger, and then Blonde. Brown hair experienced the highest tensile stress value before breaking and blonde experienced the lowest tensile stress value before breaking. The order of tensile stress experienced by hair (from my results) before breaking is as follows: Brown, Ginger, Black, and then Blonde. Graph 1 shows the average force required to break the four colours of hair. From this graph I can see that brown hair required the greatest force to break. Black hair also required a large amount of force to break and so did ginger hair. Black hair only required a small amount of more force to break then ginger hair. The breaking force required for brown, black and ginger hair was quite similar. Blonde hair required much less force to break compared to the other colours of hair. This proves that the disulphide bonds in the blonde hair are not a big advantage for strength of the hair. The darker the hair the stronger the force required for the bonds in the hair to break. The darker the hair the more resistant it is to breaking when forces are applied. The darker the hair the higher concentrations of melanin present along the hair cortex. The same sort of pattern is seen in graphs 2, 3, 4 and 5. Graphs 2, 3, 4 and 5 show the extension of hair when masses are added. Blonde hair breaks the earliest and brown hair breaks the latest. Graph 2 shows brown hair. Brown hair requires about 120g to extend up to about 70mm before breaking. The graph follows a basic trend and there are no anomalous results. All results fit the line of best fit. Graph 3 shows blonde hair. Blonde hair requires about 80g to extend up to about 35mm before breaking. The graph follows the basic trend and most results fit the line of best fit. There is one anomaly, though. The extension should not increase and then decrease. It should keep on decreasing. There must have been an error in recording this result. The results in graphs 2, 3, 4 and 5 are all averages. To work out the blonde values in table 32, the results in tables 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 were used. There was only one value for the extension at 80g, in table 15. This value was smaller than the average of all the extensions in all six tables. This sample of hair should have broken at 80g not 90g. This did not happen. This may have been an error in not measuring correctly. Graph 4 shows ginger hair. Ginger hair requires about 100g to extend up to about 60mm before breaking. The graph follows the basic trend until it gets to 55g point. From this point onwards the hair length increases and decreases dramatically. This should not happen. The reason why this happens is described above with the blonde hair. It is an error in measuring. Graph 5 shows black hair. Black hair requires about 140g to extend up to about 65mm before breaking. This graph is perfect. There are no anomalies. All points meet the line of best fit accurately. Graph 6 shows the average stresses and strains experienced by each hair colour. All four hair colours are plotted on the same graph so they can be easily compared against each other. Brown, blonde and ginger hairs do not follow the normal trend. The stresses and strains for these three should continue to increase. Tables 57, 58, 59 and 60 show where the stress and strain values came form. The results are like this because when the stress and strain values were calculated the average extensions were used, which had a few faults, as describe above. Graphs 7, 8, 9 and 10 show clearly what is happening to the stress-strain curves. Graph 7 shows one anomalous result. It has a high stress and strain value. Graph 8 also shows only one anomalous result. These two graphs show the basic trend. Graph 9 shows the normal trend until the stress value gets to 150Nm-2. Then it decreases and goes back on itself. This should not happen. The reason for this is explained above. There is an error in the extension averages. Graph 10 shows no anomalies. Graphs 11, 12, 13 and 14 show modified values for stress and strain in all colours of hair. Graph 11 shows the modified stresses and strains for brown hair. This graph does not bend backwards and the stress and strain values do not decrease. Graph 12 shows the modified stresses and strains for blonde hair. This graph does not show values of stress and strain decreasing. Graph 13 shows the modified stresses and strains for ginger hair. This graph has changed a lot. It reads much clearer. Stress and strain increases throughout. This is exactly what the graph should look like. Graph 14 is the same as graph 10. It did not need any modifications. The toughness of a hair is measured of its resistance to break. A lot of energy is required to break a tough material. Finally, the strength of a material (or Ã¢â¬Ëtensile strengthÃ¢â¬â¢) is the greatest tensile stress it can undergo before breaking. Hair is an elastic material; it can stretch to a certain maximum point (elastic point) before breaking. The largest tensile stress that can be applied to a material before it breaks is known as its ultimate tensile stress (UTS). This value is sometimes referred to as the materials breaking stress. Graph 7 shows the stress-strain points for brown hair. Graph 11 shows a modified version of this. The UTS for brown hair is 359.03. Graph 8 shows stress-strain points for blonde hair. Graph 12 shows a modified version of this. The UTS for blonde hair is 125.48. Graph 9 shows the stress-strain for ginger hair. Graph 13 shows a modified version of this. The UTS for ginger hair is 286.58. Graph 10 shows the stress-strain points for black hair. Graph 14 shows a modified version of this. The UTS for black hair is 158.31. Overall I can see that brown hair was the strongest. This was not expected. I expected black hair to have the highest tensile strength, as it had a higher density of melanin along the cortex. Blonde hair turned out to be the one with the lowest tensile stress. Ginger haired people have a high density of the pheomelanin pigments in their hair fibre. Those who produce virtually no eumelanin have a red to orange colour depending on the density of the pigment in the hair fibre. Red haired people who have a greater relative proportion of eumelanin production have a deeper red to red brown colour. Ginger hair also should have a high tensile strength. This is what I saw in my results. Black hair should also have a high tensile strength. My results showed black hair to have high tensile strength but not the highest. There are other ways in which hair tensile strength could have been measured. Hair products like shampoos have an effect on hair tensile strength. They are now designed to change hair strengths. Different makes of hair shampoos could be used. Strength could be measured in a similar way to how I measured it. A control will be also be needed, with hair with no products added. These modifications in Graphs 11, 12, 13 and 14 show what the stress strain graphs should look like. In Graphs 7, 8, 9 and 10 the lines should not bend backwards. Statistical Test I will be using the (Chi squared test) X2. The formula for the Chi squared test is as follows: X2 = ? [(O Ã¢â¬â E) 2 /E] O = Observed value E = Expected value The ((O Ã¢â¬â E) 2) part of the formula considers the size of the difference between the observed and expected values. This difference could be either positive or negative. To avoid the mathematical problems associated with negative values, the difference is squared. The (E) part of the formula relates the size of the difference to the magnitude of the numbers involved. The sigma (?) Ã¢â¬ËsumÃ¢â¬â¢ symbol is required because there is not just one pair of observed and expected values, but several (in this case four). By taking all the observed values of stress from tables 57, 58, 59 and 60, I can work out the expected value for each hair colour. I can then place these values in a table and work out the value for X2, using the chi squared formula. E = ( OBrown + OBlonde + OGinger + OBlack ) / 4 E = ( 297.3 + 121.5 + 246.7 + 158.3 ) / 4 E = 205.95 Brown Blonde Ginger Black O 297.3 121.5 246.7 158.3 E 205.95 205.95 205.95 205.95 ( O Ã¢â¬â E ) 91.35 -84.45 40.75 -47.65 ( O Ã¢â¬â E ) 2 8345 7132 1661 2271 (( O Ã¢â¬â E ) 2) / E 40.519 34.629 8.063 11.025 X2 = 40.519 + 34.629 + 8.063 + 11.025 X2 = 94.235 To calculate the degrees of freedom to be used can be found as follows: * Number of categories minus 1. In this case: 4 Ã¢â¬â 1 = 3 The critical value (taken from critical values for the Chi squared test) at 3 degrees of freedom is 7.81 (at the 5% level). The test statistic (X2 = 94.235) is greater than the critical value (C.V = 7.81, at the 5% significance level). We therefore can reject the null hypothesis and state there is a significant difference between the observed a Investigating the factors affecting tensile strength of human hair Evaluating: (Skill D) Limitations * The selotape holding hairs in the paperclip at the top and at the bottom could have interfered with the tertiary structure of the protein, keratin. This could have increased or decreased the bond attractions in the hair to cause the hair to have a high or low tensile stress. This would make my results unreliable. The hairs showing higher tensile stress may just be showing how sticky the selotape is and how strongly it is holding the hair structure together. This though, would affect all my results, as all hair samples had selotape on them to hold them together at the top and at the bottom. So, this limitation would affect all hairs making it a very weak limitation. My conclusion will not be affected as this limitation affects all hairs. * The time in between weights were added is another limitation. When each weight was added the hair stretched. But when there were a lot of weights on hair, the hair stretched quickly and then the length was measured. After I finished measuring the hair had slowly stretched a little bit more. So the measurement was wrong. When the next weight was added extra extension was added onto the new extension. My results were affected by this because some extensions were false making some data imprecise. Therefore, my conclusion will be invalid, because some hair samples could have broken at lower weights if I had waited for the hair to stretch, very slowly until it broke. There needed to be a time limit in which I had to record the extension of the hair, before adding the next weight to the hair. * The eye piece graticule can be a limiting factor. Different people measured hair thickness and recorded it to what they felt the thickness ought to be according to the scale. It was not very clear to see how thick the hair was, as the hair was faded under the microscope at all magnifications and the outline was difficult to see. This could affect my results as the thickness of hairs was used to calculate the cross sectional area of the hairs, which was then used to calculate the tensile stress experienced by the hair. This could make my tensile stress values incorrect. My conclusion therefore could be affected; by making out that a certain coloured hair had a higher tensile stress than another coloured hair, when really it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have. This would make my conclusion unreliable. * There were different shades of hair colour, for example, there were light brown hair colours and dark brown hair colours. It was sometimes hard to distinguish between brown and blonde. This was the same for blonde hair. This would have an affect on the reliability and precision of my results making the accuracy of the strengths of different colours of colours of hair inaccurate. There should have been a certain shade of colour of hair (same amount of melanin in each brown hair) used for each colour sample. My conclusion will be imprecise because brown or blonde hair shades could cause incorrect results and make my conclusion incorrect. * The 10g mass is a limitation as the hair could break at lower masses than they actually did, for example a hair that broke at 50g could have broken at 41g, but I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t know that as I only used 10g masses. So, I got false readings implying the hair is stronger than it actually is. If smaller masses were used my results would be much more accurate to make my conclusion reliable. This limitation could cause my conclusion to be invalid, causing the hairs strength and point on breaking higher or lower than it actually is. Conclusion After doing my statistical test I can reject my null hypothesis and accept my hypothesis and say that brown, blonde, ginger and black hairs differ in tensile strength. I have proved this difference in my calculations, mainly in graphs 1 and 6. From my results I can see that darker coloured has a higher tensile stress compared to lighter coloured hairs. In my hypothesis I said that lighter coloured hair would have a higher tensile strength than darker coloured hair, due to lighter coloured hair having sulphur-sulphide bonds, which are very strong. I have disproved this. Through testing all four colours of hair I can see that these strong sulphur bonds do not reflect any tensile strength qualities. Lighter coloured hair does not have an advantage over dark coloured hair when it comes to tensile strength. It mainly depends on the type of melanin the hair contains. The denser the melanin quantity is the stronger the hair.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The three characters in HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber form a triangle in which the relationships are not clear from the beginning. The plot of the short story is not very complicated: during a safari, the rich and handsome Francis Macomber proves to be a coward when he runs off scared while hunting the lion he had wounded. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In fact, the attribute of Ã¢â¬ËcowardÃ¢â¬â¢ is given to him, indirectly, by his wife Margot and by Wilson, the hunter who accompanies them on the expedition. The whole story thus revolves around the killing of the lion, an act which seems to be the ultimate proof of manhood, and, which constitutes therefore a great attraction to women. The setting and the context of the story- the safari in the wilderness of Africa- seem to determine also the plot: Hemingway chooses for his characters two Americans with a great wealth and social stand, who are supposed to be very civilized, and exposes in fact their instinctual behavior, which seems to have kept its wild nature. Francis Macomber and Robert Wilson Ã¢â¬ËfightÃ¢â¬â¢, by proving their courage in the hunt, for the Ã¢â¬ËfemaleÃ¢â¬â¢ who will instinctually choose the stronger of the two. The fact that the behavior of wild animals and that of humans have a common pattern is emphasized by Hemingway careful notation of the lionÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËfeelingsÃ¢â¬â¢ while he is being hunted by the two men. Thus, a clear connection is established between men and the wild animals: Ã¢â¬Å"Macomber had not thought how the lion felt as he got out of the car. He only knew his hands were shaking and as he walked away from the car it was almost impossible for him to make his legs move.Ã¢â¬ (Hemingway, 8) Thus, after MacomberÃ¢â¬â¢s failure in the hunt of the lion, Margot kisses the Ã¢â¬ËwinnerÃ¢â¬â¢, Wilson, and completely ignores her husband, and her behavior seems to be the exact pattern of the creatures in the wilderness. Furthermore, the very night after MacomberÃ¢â¬â¢s defeat, she goes to bed with Wilson, without even trying to dissimulate in front of her husband. The courage to kill and to face death is taken here as the main criteria for manhood: Ã¢â¬Å"Fear gone like an operation. Something else grew in its place. Main thing a man had. Made him into a man. Women knew it too. No bloody fear.Ã¢â¬ (Hemingway, 12) The marriage between Francis and Margot had been nothing more than a profitable business affair, him having the money and she the beauty. As it is hinted, these interests are the only things that kept them together still. Both of them seem to be sure these ties are strong enough to secure against a break-up. However, after having found out about his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s betrayal, MacomberÃ¢â¬â¢s instinctive nature seems to be awakened: he discovers the exhilaration that the hunt and the killings produce in him, and his fear is completely gone. Still, Margot is not pleased by her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s success, as one would expect. She rather feels threatened, and tries to hide it by resuming her contemptuous attitude towards him: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve gotten awfully brave, awfully suddenly,Ã¢â¬â¢ his wife said contemptuously, but her contempt was not secure. She was very afraid of something.Ã¢â¬ (Hemingway, 11) Thus, Margot Ã¢â¬ËrewardsÃ¢â¬â¢ the braveness of her husband by killing him while he was fighting the bull, apparently trying to aim at the beast. However, it is obvious that she kills him intentionally, first of all, because of her strange behavior before the murder, and also because of the logic of events. As Hemingway hints, Ã¢â¬Ëshe was afraid of somethingÃ¢â¬â¢ and it can plainly be seen that that something was the fact that Macomber might leave her for her betrayal, now that he found his self-assurance and his manliness again. This is exactly what Wilson alludes at after the Ã¢â¬ËaccidentÃ¢â¬â¢: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢That was a pretty thing to do,Ã¢â¬â¢ he said in a toneless voice. Ã¢â¬ËHe would have left you too.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Hemingway, 14) She thus kills her husband to ward off the danger of having him leave her. This is proven by her strong emotions during the bull hunt, in which Macomber finally shows his braveness: her face is white with fear and probably contrasting feelings. At first she seems to congratulate again the winner, this time her husband: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢In the car MacomberÃ¢â¬â¢s wife sat very white-faced. Ã¢â¬ËYou were marvelous, darling,Ã¢â¬â¢ she said to Macomber. Ã¢â¬ËWhat a ride.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Hemingway, 13) Nonetheless, her admiration soon turns into the fear that her husband will desert her: Ã¢â¬Å"Her face was white and she looked ill.Ã¢â¬ Again, the fact that Margot kills her husband on purpose coheres with the rest of her instinctive behavior: although the main reason of the killing seems to be his fortune or her social stand which she might lose, it may be that her murder is again instinctive, in the sense that she is afraid of losing the now desirable man, because of his courage. She prefers shooting him, again cohering with the hunt. Her Ã¢â¬ËhystericalÃ¢â¬â¢ crying over the dead body of her husband do not manage to convince us of her innocence or her pain at the loss: she rather mourns him either because she needs to act in front of the other hunters, or because she has to give up the hero she had been looking for. The way in which she changes her mind after MacomberÃ¢â¬â¢s success, and she says that their hunting is by no means a heroic act, clearly demonstrates that she feels trapped, again manifesting her instinctual nature. At the end of the story, she herself is defeated by Wilson, who plainly lets her see that he knows the truth, and seems to enjoy the feeling of being able to submit her to his will, and have her beg: Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s better, Ã¢â¬ËWilson said. Ã¢â¬ËPlease is much better. Now IÃ¢â¬â¢ll stop.Ã¢â¬â¢(Hemingway, 14) The meanings of HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s story are thus very complex, as he analyzes the instinctual relationships between men and women, and other instincts, such as that of killing and hunting or of possessing and dominating. Works Cited: Hemingway, Ernest. The Complete Short Stories. New York: Scribner Paperback Fiction, 1998
Friday, September 27, 2019
Human Rights and Development - Essay Example Low-income countries have many issues to deal with including poverty, poor education systems, inadequate healthcare provision systems and corruption among other issues. Most low-income countries are ill equipped to deal with diseases that affect large populations especially communicable diseases. HIV/ AIDS has proven to be a very difficult issue to solve in low income countries affecting human rights and development in such countries (Institute of Medicine (U.S.), Briere & National Academies Press, 2011:29). The UN Charter on human rights states that every person has a right to good health status, which means that all people must have access to quality health care services. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has made it difficult to achieve this aspect of human rights under the UN charter. Most low-income countries are ill equipped to deal with the pandemic. Their economic status and the healthcare sector do not have enough funds, equipment and personnel to deal with HIV/AIDS. In addition to this, most low-income countries cannot afford to provide medication and the necessary healthcare services to people with HIV/AIDS considering that these countries have the highest number of people suffering from the disease (Robinson,Ã 2011:99). This countries struggle to deal with the HIV/ AIDS pandemic on top of the fact that new infections occur at higher rates compared to the middle income and the high income countries. As such, the fulfilment or the provision of human rights to populations with HIV/ AIDS in low-income countries has become a difficult issue to accomplish. All people affected by the HIV/ AIDS including those infected and their families are entitled to access public resources that enable them to cope with the effects of HIV/ AIDS. However, low-income countries face a difficulty to provide public support to this group meaning that they suffer rejection and
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Life review paper - Essay Example This made him be highly esteemed by the public and his relations due to his advanced age. He is loved by the members of his family and receives plenty of attention from them. During his childhood, he gained the first experience of death; his father passed on when he was still young. This resulted in his mother being the lone breadwinner, who struggled to fend for him along with his kin. Despite this, he still regards his childhood as a happy one. The interviewee was in a lasting marriage of 56 years and has been living as a widower, since his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s demise 17 years ago. Then interviewee owned a farm and cultivated corn. This became his sole career throughout his life. He, however, is not conversant with what hobby he participates in, but is an avid saver and always comes up with methods of saving cash. He practices the catholic religion and is a believer of the Christian doctrines, he accepts as true that God and heaven exist. This is palpable in the actuality that he has faith that he will join up with his spouse in heaven (Birkeland et al. 2009). As the article highlights, the elderly people are faced with several constraints, mostly physical, as they find themselves unable to cope with other activities. However, although such physical constraints put limits on the elderly level of activity, it highlights that they managed to perform other activities, which were not physically demanding for their strength. It shows from the study conducted that the elderly people who suffered from chronic diseases and injuries managed to adapt to the situation by accepting their status and conditions. In the conversation with the researcher, the interviewee also admitted having accepted his situation as an elderly and further ascertained of his illness. He believes that aging is part of being human and explains that, although it is sad to be incapacitated, to do things that one loved doing, and depend on others to do them, it is part of lifeÃ and his destiny
Digital Intellectual Property - Essay Example Digital intellectual property is a type of intellectual property, which is somewhat more technical and information technology oriented. Some of the most common digital intellectual property issues include plagiarism, reverse engineering, open source code, competitive intelligence, and cyber squatting. In this paper, we will discuss plagiarism, which is one of the most common digital intellectual property issues. Plagiarism In the simplest form, plagiarism means to use someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s idea, conversation, writing, or any other thing without using the reference of that person. Plagiarism is not only associated with the act of copying someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s written work or oral speeches without mentioning the source but also it is associated with all types of visual art works, music, and paintings. Ã¢â¬Å"A painting that is a direct copy of someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s work without permission is also plagiarism when the work is presented as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ownÃ¢â¬ (Ellis-Christensen, n.d.). There ar e a number of ethical issues related to plagiarism, which make it one of the most common issues all over the world. Ã¢â¬Å"Plagiarism violates the law as well as individual moral codesÃ¢â¬ (Jorgensen, n.d.). ... 5). My personal point of view regarding the issue of plagiarism is that it is an act of copying and cheating which is totally against the creativity ethics. Rozakis (2007) states, Ã¢â¬Å"Plagiarism is a serious lapse in ethics as well as a cause for failureÃ¢â¬ (p. 118). Here, I would like to relate a personal experience in which my professor caught me for the act of plagiarism. My professor gave me an assignment in which I had to write a one-page paper on some topic of my interest. I wrote the paper on discrimination and submitted it to the professor. Unfortunately, the professor gave me no marks for the paper as he caught some plagiarism in that paper. Actually, I copied a couple of paragraphs from a website and tried to write them in my own words. My professor discouraged my act and asked me that I should have mentioned the source even for paraphrasing. Although I lost my marks in that assignment but I got some new information about plagiarism that one should not closely paraph rase two large paragraphs without mentioning the source. Some people say that paraphrasing is one of the ways to avoid plagiarism. However, if someone does paraphrasing of a small paragraph or a quotation, which is very close to the original version, it is also a form of plagiarism. Ã¢â¬Å"Paraphrasing someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s work too closely is another form of plagiarismÃ¢â¬ (Ellis-Christensen, n.d.). Plagiarism is cheating which cannot be tolerated in any case. Submitting someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s work as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own, doing close paraphrasing, not documenting the references properly, or copying personal work are such actions which do not find any base in the ethics of creative works. Some people use copyrighted work available on the internet
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Early Development and Statehood - Research Paper Example The region was also had resources such as fur that were good for trade (Tennessee 359). The political development in Tennessee offered a clear reflection of the experience of political development in the thirteen British colonies. The region was characterized by political upheavals and separations calls. As a result, there was no common political voice of the inhabitants. Moreover, the government of the day was also in disarray and sometimes offered support to some of the colonial masters. As a result, the region was divided based on semi-autonomous government common among thirteen British colonies (Tennessee 360-366). Various conditions in Tennessee prompted its application for statehood in 1795-1796. One of such conditions was the Tennesseans inability to gain political voice in the region (366). As a result, they felt that there would be increased political participation by gaining of statehood. The inhabitants also lacked the kind of protection that was evident from organized form of government. The protection was also once Northern Carolina disowned the six settlements making them vulnerable (Tennessee 366). Moreover, the government under the Article of Confederation was also perceived as weak and hence unable to guarantee security and well-being of the people. The inhabitants also had an established form of self-government and felt that they could now be able to take political matters in their hands. Moreover, there was decreased frontier warfare. The decreased rivalry made it possible for a leader to translate the region into a new state that had structured regime and constitution (Tennesse e 368). The factors made it possible for the application of admission by the congress. In conclusion, it is clear that Tennessee went through a rigorous process before admission into statehood. The process was characterized by
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
IMPROVING JOB SATISFACTION AND MORAL THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION - Essay Example Extrinsic motivators donÃ¢â¬â¢t do much in this regard that is why intrinsic motivators like satisfaction. Employees rate pleasant working conditions like a gift from the firm (Organ, 1988). In a study conducted by Burke and Wilcox (1969) it was found that a clear effect was attributable to openness in communication between superior and a subordinate; the greater openness of either superior or subordinate (or even both), the greater satisfaction of subordinate regarding five variables that directly depend on satisfaction. These comprise of Ã¢â¬Å"(1) Satisfaction with the Company, (2) Satisfaction with the Job, (3) Satisfaction with Performance Appraisal and Development Interview (climate for growth), (4) presence of a "Helping Relationship," and (5) Satisfaction with SupervisorÃ¢â¬ (Burke & Wilcox, 1969). This openness is more effective when initiated by the superior. When a superior initiates openness in conversation and behavior, the subordinate responds accordingly. The open ness doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t respond to any causal relationship (Burke & Wilcox, 1969). Communication is inevitable and absolutely essential for healthy functioning of an organization (Burke & Wilcox, 1969). Degree of openness in communication process is the key element that decides its effectiveness (Burke & Wilcox, 1969). An organization can cash in dividends by fostering effective communication and overcoming barriers to it (Burke & Wilcox, 1969). Summary Various studies have been conducted on recognizing patterns regarding job satisfaction. Obvious factors like personal preferences and the nature of job also play their part for an employee, but that is solely on employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s discretion.... The author concludes that effective communication doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to be rigid and formal, in fact researches emphasize on the openness of communication and how it generates comfort level between superior and subordinate. Gone are the days of threatening an employee with firing unless certain benchmarks are met. These days the nature of work has changed dramatically, it is not possible anymore to impose rigid measuring frames to Ã¢â¬Ëqualify/quantifyÃ¢â¬â¢ and employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. So under this added complexity at work, how employers cope with job frustration and boredom from employees? They bring in the motivational language. Job satisfaction increases productivity, the more the workforce considers themselves a part of the corporate the more they contribute. Now the question remains as what qualifies as a positive motivator and what constitutes as a failure. Incentives and perks has their importance as well as effective communication. Moreover, communication needs t o be effective in order to fulfill its purpose. The level openness in a talk between superiors and subordinates can achieve this effectiveness. This openness needs to be initiated by the superiors, as subordinates respond to this openness in a desired way. Such rapport creates comfort level at job. The easier the work environment becomes the low the job turnover will be. Job satisfaction is also related with employee participation in corporate dynamics. The more the employees involve in work place affairs, the greater is job satisfaction as well as performance.
Monday, September 23, 2019
What's the effects of obesity (debating) - Research Paper Example The effects of obesity are not limited to the affected persons but affect the entire country as a whole. On an individual level, obesity has several health implications. First, Diabetes has been found to contribute to the occurrence of diabetes Mellitus. It is argued that since obesity affects the distribution of body fat, this has an effect on the metabolism of glucose. This leads to the body developing a resistance towards obesity. Secondly, obesity has been observed to cause cardiovascular problems. With the increase in body fat and tissue, the oxygen demands of the body increase. This leads to high cardiac output which in turn leads to changes in the structure of the heart to cope with the increase demand. This causes a sharp increase in blood pressure. In addition, congestive heart failure (CHF) is also caused by obesity (National Institutes of Health, 16). Thirdly, persons suffering from obesity have been observed to have sleep-breathing difficulties. It is argued that the incr ease in the amount of fat on the chest wall as well as the abdomen has a great impact on the functioning of the chest and diaphragm, thereby affecting the mechanisms of breathing. Fifth, a number of studies have shown that there is a strong link between obesity and colon and breast cancers. Diabetes has been found to cause colon cancer in men but less in women while at the causing breast cancer in women. Finally, on an economic scale, obesity has been found to have great economic effects. Specifically, the costs associated with treating diabetes and resulting complications are very high. For example, according to the National Institutes of Health (1995), the direct and indirect medical costs associated with obesity in America in 1995 were estimated to be $99.2 billion and $47.6 billion respectively. In addition, the costs associated with loss of productive
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Originally and Lanarkshire Girls Essay Compare and contrast two poems, one by each poet, taking account of the methods (situation, form and structure, and language, including imagery and tones) which each poet uses to write about her mother.Ã The poems Ã¢â¬ËOriginallyÃ¢â¬â¢ by Carol-Ann Duffy and Ã¢â¬ËLanarkshire GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ by Liz Lochhead both deal with the theme of journeys. The former poem is about a situation in which the speaker and her family moved cities. It describes the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s uncertainty with regards to her identity. The second poem, Ã¢â¬ËLanarkshire GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ recalls the first time the speaker as a fourteen year old took the bus into the city of Glasgow with her friends. For both the speakers, the journey and experience are new to them. They both share similar environments in which they travel, with the speaker in Ã¢â¬ËOriginallyÃ¢â¬â¢ riding in a Ã¢â¬Ëred roomÃ¢â¬â¢ and the speaker in Ã¢â¬ËLanarkshire GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ travelling in a Ã¢â¬Ëred busÃ¢â¬â¢. In exploiting the colour red, the poets may be conveying a sense of anxiety that accompanies the speakers on their unfamiliar journeys. However, any sense of anxiety felt by the speaker in Ã¢â¬ËLanarkshire GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ is short lived and replaced with excitement as with, Ã¢â¬Ëmoney burning a holeÃ¢â¬â¢ in the girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ pockets, they began Ã¢â¬ËdreamingÃ¢â¬â¢ themselves up. On the other hand, the anxiety felt by the speaker in Ã¢â¬ËOriginallyÃ¢â¬â¢ doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t deteriorate but worsens and affects not only the speaker, but her entire family too, Ã¢â¬ËMy parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ anxiety stirred like a loose tooth.Ã¢â¬â¢ This speaks to the permanency and consequences of each journey. For the speaker in DuffyÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, the consequences of the journey are large and the relocation is permanent as although she wants to return to her Ã¢â¬Ëown countryÃ¢â¬â¢ desperately, she cannot. In contrast, the journey taken by the speaker in Ã¢â¬ËLanarkshire GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ is temporary and the consequences, little. Once the speaker has explored her destination of Glasgow city, she and her friends will return to t heir rural homes. Ã¢â¬ËOriginallyÃ¢â¬â¢ is arranged in three stanzas, each with eight lines, this ridged structure allows the reader to consider fully, the impact of the journey. In addition, each stanza takes a different viewpoint; therefore by taking a separate stanza for each one the reader can follow each perspective more easily. The first stanza describes the journey through the eyes of the speaker as a child, the second takes a generic view of childhood overall and considers it metaphorically, and the third is from the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective again, this time as an adult who is still struggling with her identity. Similarly, Ã¢â¬ËLanarkshire GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ is arranged into three stanzas, however, each with a different number of lines, the poem is in free verse. This is to accommodate the anecdotal style of the poem. The poet arranges this poem into three stanzas to represent the three different stages of the journey, the first as the speaker is leaving the rural country-side, the second deals with the approach to the city, and the third describes the city of Glasgow itself.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
A Pestel Analysis Of Indian Tourism Tourism Essay Learning should be like pleasure trips, like excursions , to explore new vistas, and to attain greater heights of knowledge. The basic purpose of learning should be to nurture inquisitiveness in such a manner that clear value additions take place. What is new and different? In a competitive world , differentiation is the best strategy, and I have adopted that. The whole term paper is written in steps so that our teacher could understand my term paper easily, as compared to others. I have given the PESTEL and observation of the tourism industry in dustry in the best possible manner. The real observations and examples are given in the term paper. Benefits from term paper? This term paper has been written to cater the needs of anyone who wants the first hand experience of various factors influencing the tourism industry. Various facts and figures are given to understand tourism industry in better way. TRAVELLERS TO VISIT INDIA -ARTICLE#5: COMMONWEALTH GAMES INDIAN TOURISM INDUSTRY ARTICLE#6: GROWTH TREND IN EXOTIC INDIAN TOURISM INDUSTRY SOURCEOF DATA PESTEL ANALYSIS OF INDIAN TOURISM -POLITICAL ANALYSIS -ECONOMIC ANALYSIS -SOCIAL ANALYSIS -TECONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS -ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS -LEGAL ANALYSIS OBSERVATION FUTURE OF TOPIC REFRENCES OBJECTIVE PESTEL ANALYSIS OF INDIAN TOURISM is being done in order to check and determine the effect of various factors that have an impact on the growth and establishment of tourism. The main objective of this term paper is as under: PESTEL analysis of INDIAN TOURISM ARTICLE Analysis on INDIAN TOURISM OBSERVATION of INDIAN TOURISM FUTURE of topic. INTRODUCTION INDIAN TOURISM: The tourism industry in INDIA is substantial and vibrant, and the country is fast becoming a major global destination. Indias travel and tourism industry is one of them most profitable industries in the country, and also credited with contributing a substantial amount of foreign exchange. This is illustrated by the fact that during 2006, four million tourists visited India and spent US $8.9 billion. Several reasons are cited for the growth and prosperity of Indias travel and tourism industry. Economic growth has added millions annually to the ranks of Indias middle class, a group that is driving domestic tourism growth. Disposable income in India has grown by 10.11% annually from 2001-2006, and much of that is being spent to travel. Thanks in part to its booming IT and outsourcing industry a growing number of business trips are made by foreigners to India, who will often add a weekend break or longer holiday to their trip. Foreign tourists spend more in India than almost any other country worldwide. Tourist arrivals are projected to increase by over 22% per year through till 2010, with a 33% increase in foreign exchange earnings recorded in 2004. The Tourism Ministry has also played an important role in the development of the industry, initiating advertising campaigns such as the Incredible India campaign, which promoted Indias culture and tourist attractions in a fresh and memorable way. The campaign helped create a colorful image of India in the minds of consumers all over the world, and has directly led to an increase in the interest among tourists. . Both directly and indirectly, increased tourism in India has created jobs in a variety of related sectors. The numbers tell the story: almost 20 million people are now working in the Indias tourism industry. A new growth sector is medical tourism. It is currently growing at around 30% per annum. Medical tourist arrivals are expected to reach one million soon. The tourism industry of India is based on certain core nationalistic ideals and standards which are: Swaagat or welcome, Sahyog or cooperation, Soochanaa or information, Sanrachanaa or infrastructure, Suvidha or facilitation, Safaai or cleanliness and Surakshaa or security. The following table provides the major tourist attraction in india: Charminar: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh .Kaziranga National Park:Assam. Qutub Minar:Delhi. Mangueshi Temple: Goa. Shimla: Himachal Pradesh.Dal: LakeJammu and Kashmir. Jog FallsShimoga District, Karnataka. Kovalam Beach : Kerala. Amarkantak: Madhya Pradesh . Ajanta: Maharashtra. Puri: Orissa. Golden Temple : Amritsar, Punjab. Jaipur : Rajasthan. Chennai : Tamil Nadu . Badrinath Temple : Uttarakhand, Varanasi , Uttar Pradesh. Victoria Memorial:Kolkata, Bengal PESTEL ANALYSIS: Originally designed as a business environmental scan, the PEST or PESTLE analysis is an analysis of the external macro environment (big picture) in which a business operates. These are often factors which are beyond the control or influence of a business, however are important to be aware of when doing product development, business or strategy planning . PESTEL analysis is the method to characterize or to analyse the various features and traits of any industry like steel industry, power industry, etc,. We are analysing INDIAN TOURISM INDUSTRY by using PESTEL ANALYSIS.PESTEL stands for POLITICAL ECONOMICAL SOCIAL TECHNICAL ECOLOGICAL LEGAL ARTICLES/LITERATURE REVIEW ON INDIAN TOURISM ARTICLE # 1: TOURISM IN INDIA: BY SINGH ,KARNAIL, 07 JUN 2008, TOURISM IN INDIA http://aaharways.com/main/modules/articles/article.php?id=196 The growth of tourism is at a very quick pace the year 2004-2005 show tourism as major contributors to Indian Economy. There is an excessive growth on the arrival of foreign tourist. Tourist started coming from Middle East, South Africa, USA, Spain, France and Portugal etcÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦This act as a major contributors in Indias economy. Interesting feature of this growth is that it has come even as global tourism has dropped, due to the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in East Asia, and the Iraq warÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ ANALYSIS: According to this article the author tries to say that one of the major contributor to the Indian economy is the tourism industry. One of the political factor of the PESTEL analysis has effected the tourism growth, i.e, the attack of the 11 septembet which was the terrorist activity. The author says that due to the rise in the income which has made economic conditions of the people better has added in the domestic tourism. The people in summers visit hilly areas like Kashmir and Himachal, which has happened due to rise in income of the people. Aggressive advertising campaign Incredible India by the government has also had contribution in changing Indias image. More than 6500 taxi drivers, restaurant owners and guides trained under the programme. ARTICLE # 2: ROYAL TRAINS IN INDIA: http://www.articlesnatch.com/topic/Indian-Maharaja-Train-in -india-cream-of-indian-tourism_2192928.html Royal Trains in India offer royal safaris to the most vibrant cities of India. Royal Trains in India offer an opportunity to feel the royalty and elegance of Indian Maharajas of bygone era. The Royal Indian Trains take the tourists through the verdant valleys, barren deserts, royal palaces, imperial forts, famous beaches and so on and on.Royal Trains in India are Indian heritage hotels on board which open their doors in different cities of India each day. These heriatge trains in India provide the tourists with the utmost royal ambiance to make them feel the royalty of Indian Maharajas, Mighty Marathas and Royal RajputsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.. ANALYSIS: According to this article the author tries to say that the one of the beauty of indian tourism is the royal trains of India. There are 5 royal trains in India- Palace on Wheels, Royal Rajasthan on Wheels, Golden Chariot, Maharaja Express and Deccan Odyssey. All of the five Indian Royal Trains provide luxury tours in India. Royal trains represent the values, heritage and the culture of the India. This is one of the social factor if we take this article with respect to the PESTEL analysis, that has impact on Indian tourism. The royal train are adding great value to tourism as many royality seeking tourists are visiting India for this reason. ARTICLE # 3: RNCOS RELEASES A NEW REPORT: BY SHUSHMUL, MAHESHWARI,RNCOS E-Services Pvt. Ltd http://www.Articlebase.com/rnocs-realese-new-report The report Indian Tourism Industry Analysisby RNCOS provides an insight into the Indian tourism market. It evaluates the past, present and future scenario of the Indian tourism market and discusses the key factors which are making India a potential tourism destination. With focuses on different parameters of tourism industry, including inbound tourism, outbound tourism, expenditure by inbound tourists, medical tourism, and hotel industry, the report gives a thorough analysis on the tourism industry in India. Key Issues Facts Analyzed Ã What is the current state of the tourism industry in India? Ã What are the emerging trends in the tourism sector? Ã Which are the leading tourism states?Ã What is the future outlook of the tourism industry? Ã Which factors are driving the Indian tourism industry? Ã What is the scenario of the hotel industry in India? ANALYSIS: According to the report, India represents one of the most potential tourism markets in the world. It has expanded rapidly over the past few years and underpinned by the government support, rising income level and various international sports events, the Indian tourism industry will continue to grow at the fastest pace in the coming years. However, the industry may have to cope up with several challenges which will limit its growth. Key Findings: Ã India is expected to see an influx of 10 Million international tourists by 2010, up from just 5 Million inÃ 2007.Ã Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Rajasthan are the leading tourism destinations inÃ India in terms of total tourist arrivals.Ã India has been promoting its healthcare tourism by providing the visitors with private healthcare facilities. It isÃ expected that the total market for medical tourism will reach US$ 2 Billion by 2012, representing a CAGR of 60.69%. Ã Personal disposable income during 2002-2007 grew at a CAGR of 14.16%, thereby driving domesticÃ as well asÃ outbound tourism. Ã Indian outbound tourist flow is expected to increase at a CAGR of 13.30% over the five-year periodÃ spanningÃ from 2008 to 2012. Ã Indias share in the global tourism is expected to reach 1.5% by 2010. ARTICLE # 4: INDIAN MEDICAL TOURISM TREMENDOUSLY ATTRACTING TRAVELLERS TO VISIT INDIA http://www.articlenow.com/indian-medical-tourism The unwell gloomy faces can now smile as India has been declared an ideal destination for medical tours. Even the failing hearts are now treated more successfully at a much lower cost as compared to other parts of the world. In medical field, India has seen much growth and advancements. In the offing, the most complicated by pass surgeries or bone marrow transplants are viable in India. ANALYSIS: According to this article the author tries to say that the medical tourism in India is growing at a high pace and which has benefitted the Indian tourism. This is one of the technological factor of the PESTEL analysis, that has been affecting indian tourism. , indian tourism has been growing because of medical tourism . medical and medical related facilities are cheap in india as compared to other countries. As a part of Visit India 2009, the Ministry of Tourism has discussed with all major hospitals of India to offer incentivised deals to the medical tourists. . It is reported that over 1.5 lakhs medical tourists visited India for medical tourism in 2002 alone that brought about $300 million of earnings. Ever since then this figure of influx of medical tourists is increasing year after year by at least 25%. This is providing better oppournity to tourism industry to expand ARTICLE # 5: COMMONWEALTH GAMES AND INDIAN TOURISM INDUSTRY http://www.articlebase.com/commonwealth-games-and-indian-tourism-industry-956058 Gone are days when Indian Tourism Industry had received a set back. A new era of Indian tourism is ushering and things are now falling into their right place. India is too happy to host the exciting Commonwealth Games in 2010. And equally enthusiastic is Delhi where these Games are scheduled. 85 teams of Commonwealth Nations would be seen contesting for 17 disciplines. The 12 day long event will have matches of swimming, wrestling, weightlifting, cycling, marathon, badminton, boxing, shooting, athletics, table tennis and tennis etc. which would be held from 3rd to 14th October 2010 ANALYSIS: According to this article, author ties to say that India and more importantly Delhi and neighboring states have geared themselves up for the upcoming Commonwealth Games this year. The tourists will be much excited to witness the participants competing in the newly built Khelgaon near Yamuna River Bank which is very close to Swami Narayan Akshardham temple. Delhi Government and Indian Government had ventured into upgradation of infrastructure of the country. The Aviation, Hospitality as well as Tour and travel industry will be highly benefited from the Games. Keeping this in mind, the transportation services are being improved, metro trains will be soon seen plying passengers,Ã new hotels are mushrooming and the existing ones are been renovated.In addition to this, the monumental heritage of Delhi and surrounding states as Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh,Himachal Pradesh Madhya Pradesh is specially taken care of. ARTICLE # 6: GROWTH TREND IN EXOTIC INDIAN TOURISM INDUSTRY India, the ancient cultural cradle of the world, fascinates tourists from every corner of the world. Even we Indians are not fully aware of the beauty our country has like our ancient cities, temples, minarets, mosques, gardens, lakes, mountains and a lot more. The most popular tourist destinations in India are Central India, The North Eastern states, Calcutta, Mumbai, New Delhi , Khajuraho, and Goa, where Rajasthan, due to its wide range of cultural and ethnic diversities, is the paradise for the foreign tourists. Indian tourism industry is being utilized as a well-planned tool to facilitate international understanding and enabling building of cultural horizons in a broader way. The Government of India has already initiated to achieve such objectives by offering attractive packages to foreign tourists. It has also organized road shows in major markets of the globe such as the UK, Canada,Australia, Singapore and Malaysia. Within first two years of the introduction of 11th Five Year P lan, the ministry has sanctioned projects worth USD 14.27 million. ANALYSIS: This post give us an overview of tourism industry in India, its growth and its contribution in to the countrys economic growth. Tourism is a growing industry in India that accounts for the larger section of foreign earnings for our nation. In recent years, the industry has been severely affected because of the factors terrorism and the troubling situation in Kashmir. The earning through tourism in India was dropped below than USD 1.5 billion and so the tourism traffic, that only accounted for 0.5 percent of the total traffic of the world. Unlike past few years, 2009 has shown a sign of improvement in foreign tourist inflow. This has led the industry to contribute nearly USD 67.3 billion to gross domestic product this year, which is expected to rise above USD 187.3 billion by 2019. According to Mr Sujit Banerjee, the Tourism Secretary of India, foreign tourist arrival targets is expected to cross six million this year. Also, a 24 per cent increase was observed in foreign exchange earnings (FEE) as compared to previous years. Tourism revenue is expected to grow by 42 percent from 2007 to 2017. After witnessing the positive growth for the first time in 2009, the tourism ministry has planned to develop three niche products, which are wellness tourism, caravan tourism and helipad tourism this year. Also, the Tourism ministry is focusing on the safety and security of the tourists through awareness programs and ad campaigns to entice more visitors. It is constantly making an appeal to Indian public to take care of their gues ts with the true spirit of Atithi Devo Bhava. India is moving towards its destination of tourists main attraction spot from the phrase Incredible India. Other services like travel guides, roads,air travel,catering, sanitation, transportation and telecommunication are being operated from professional grounds. This would boost the tourism industry as well as the economy of the country. SOURCE OF DATA: The source of data that I have used is SECONDARY SOURCE DATA. Secondary data is elected in form of information which has already been collected by someone. Along with thissome information on crisis management , their features are collected from internet. For more information regarding research methodology , books from library have been referred. PESTEL ANALYSIS OF INDIAN TOURISM POLITICAL ANALYSIS: In India, one can never over-look the political factors which influence each and every industry existing in the country. Like it or not, the political interference has to be present everywhere. Given below are a few of the political factors with respect to the tourism industry: TERRORISM SECURITY:Terrorism has an adverse effect on the growth and progress of any country. Terrorism has also bad effect on the tourism industry if India. It is the big political problem to the governing party of the country. With the rise in terrorism the growth of tourism industry in the disturbed parts of country has been at slew rate. The states like Jammu and Kashmir, Assam etc. have a bad tourism output, which intern effects the countrys growth. The govt. of India is taking steps in regard to tackle the terrorism by providing more security to the tourists who are visiting such terrorist prone areas. POLITICAL INSTABILITY:Political instability also has effect on tourism industry. Sometimes frequent change of parties at state or central level have an impact on tourism policies and upliftment of tourist sites, as the different parties have different approach to tourist industry. INFRASTRUCTURE: Infrastructure development depends mainly upon the government or ruling political party. There has been a great infrastructure development from last 20 years in India. The better infrastructure has attracted more and more tourist in India that is why the tourists visited in 2000 were 684 million and 2004 were 760 million. RELATIONS WITH NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES: Relationship with the adjoining countries have also a direct relationship with the tourism industry. The political relationship of India with most of adjoining countries is good, but the tourist from near countries are not frequently visiting the country. LACK OF INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATION: One of problem that is because of political factor is the lack of international representation of the country. Indian government does not givemuch preference to representation of country internationally because of which tourism rate does not increase by any surplus amount. Countries like Malaysia are representing their country internationally which is giving boost their tourism. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS: Economic factor also play an important role in the analysis of the tourism industy. Better economic factors help to drive more and more tourist from different countries as well as from domestic market.The Tourism sector of Indian economy is at present experiencing a huge growth. The Tourism sector of Indian economy has become one of the major industrial sectors under the Indian economy. The tourism industry earns foreign exchanges worth Rs. 21,828 crore. Previous year the growth rate of the tourism sector of Indian economy was recorded as 17.3% Some of the economic factors that affect tourism industry are: GDP (GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT): Gross domestic product also plays major part in the upliftment of tourism industry. The GDP of India is growing at constant pace, it was around 9% in July,2008. Better growth of GDP has helped to attract more and more tourist. The tourism will also help to raise the GDP of India as if more and more tourist arrive they will spend more money which inturn raise the GDP of country. RISE IN NATIONAL INCOME: The Indian tourism is one of the major contributors in increasing national income and improving the economic conditions of India. US $ 4810 were generated in year 2004 alone from tourism industry and it has increased upto 36% from previous year 2003. BETTER ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: If we talk about the indian tourism industry, the rise in the output is not only because if the foreign tourists but the domestic tourism has also been spreading its wings and adding much more to tourism industry. As the economic condiions has been getting better from last decade and so people are now spending much on tours and travelling. SOCIAL ANALYSIS: Social factor are those factors that affect the tourism industry because of the society. Social factors have more or less a significant impact on Indian tourism industry. Some of the social factors that I have analysed, that effect tourism industry of India are: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES:Demographic trends describe the changes in demographics in a population over time. In India majority of the population is of the young people, who are willing to spend and to visit different parts of the country, thus one of this social factor has helped in development of tourism industry majority of population i.e, 50% is under the age of 23 years. VAST CULTURE: As we all know that the India is country of various religion and has oldest culture. India is often called subcontinent. The Indian culture drives more and more foreigners to visit the country. The is so much vastness in Indian culture and demographics that the tourists find it better to visit country like India as compared to any other country as they find various and vast cultures in India. HEALTHIER LIFESTYLE: India provides trends to the healthier lifestyle, one of the biggest example is of YOGA . most of the foreign tourist also visit India because of this purpose as they find new and better ways that could keep them healthy in their day to day sy lifestyle. LANGUAGE: The Indian population is also good at speaking English language, so this factor plays an indirect part in the upliftment of the tourism industry. The foreigners do not find it much difficult to convey themselves to the people. TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS:Technology always plays an vital role in any sector, so it has also played its part in tourism industry. Some of the major technological factors that affect the industry if tourism are as under: MEDICAL TOURISM:Medical tourism has emerged in India from 1995, the medical industry is driving more and more foreigners to come to India for their treatment. India is cheap at medical procedures and technologically advanced than the other countries. Around 1.5 lacs of tourist visited India just for medical purposes, which generated $300 million alone .Thus this one technological factor is attracting more and more crowd to India. IT SECTOR:IT sector is one of the sector in which India is getting advanced day by day. It is driving more and more foreign nationals and tourist to our country as its providing some job oppoturnity to them, which inturn makes rise in growth of the tourism sector. There are many IT parks in India and many IT hubs which techno savvy people from abroad visit to learn new things. ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS: Environment is the main part of our lives that affect us directly. Environment analysis is necessary for tourism industry as its dependent on environment. Environment factor that has impact on tourism industry of India are: GO GREEN IDEOLOGY: Go green ideology is one of the major steps taken by our government for the preservation of environment. This ideology states that more and more trees should be planted and less consumption of fuel should be done. This affects tourism industry directly as better environment will drive more crowd to the country. GLOBAL WARMING: Global warming is one of the issues of concern of the whole world. Global warming is effecting the tourism of India as glaciers of Himalaya and the various hill stations in the Jammu and Kashmir and in Himachal Pradesh are facing trouble because of global warming as the temperature and weather conditions are changing there dramatically. SAVE TIGERS INITIATIVE: Tiger saving initiatives are also taking a pace ,because royal Bengal tiger is world famous . People come from different countries to visit the national parks like KAZIRANGA etc, the tigers are the main attraction to the tourists, so government is taking initiative to save tigers. LEGAL ANALYSIS: Legal factors of any country have an impact on its tourism. Various laws and acts have direct relationship with the rise and fall in the rate of tourism. Some of the legal factors that have impact on our tourism industry are given as under: TAX EXEMPTION: The scheme and laws like tax exemption help to develop the tourism industry. The tax exemption laws like, 50% of profit derived by travel agents and tours operators will only be taxed. Such legal schemes are helping a lot in betterment of tourism. INCREDIBLE INDIA: One of the aggressive advertisement campaign by tourism department is the INCREDIBLE INDIA, it is a advertisement scheme for which the government pays the money. Many banners and advertisment on various channels are shown, by this the ministry of tourism tries to show various great places which can be visited in India. LOW SPENDERS: Apart from the above stated schemes one of the legal drawbacks is that Indian government does not spend much on the development and upliftment of tourism because of which tourism industry is not getting the utmost best channel for performing the best. FARES: Government also provides the facilities of the partly low fare to the foreigners in the railways as well as in other services to show the kind treatment and hospitality to the foreigners, this will generate the word of mouth publicity of the tourism industry which inturn is the positive sign of legal factors. OBSERVATION: Cheap air fair is curbing the domestic tourism, as people are preferring to go to different places with ease and in short time Aggressive tourism strategy adopted by countries like countries like SINGAPORE and INDIA is still lagging to implement such strategies. High operation costs. Medical tourism is emerging in India which is helping to generate better economy from it. $300 million generated in 2004. Economic development has developed the pace of domestic tourism. Personal disposable income during 2002-2007 grew at a CAGR of 14.16%, thereby driving domesticÃ as well asÃ outbound tourism. Royal trains and palaces attract the tourist who love the royal ways of living. FUTURE OF THE TOPIC: Inspite of overall recession and war of terrorism, the future looks bright: Common wealth games 2010, is one of the huge opportunity by which the tourism industry could expect to generate high revenues. Increased hotel facilities , the accommodation will be easier for the tourists. Development of the infrastructure has already begun and this will help in boosting the tourism. Various GO GREEN SAVE TIGER initiatives are adding to a better India. Fight war of terrorism to sustain.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Halfords business analysis | Free essay | Management essays Introduction Halfords is the UKs leading retailer, on the basis of turnover, in each of the key product markets in which it operates, being, car maintenance, car enhancement and leisure (including cycles and cycle accessories and roof boxes etc. Founded as a local hardware store in Birmingham in1892by F W Rushbrooke, Halfords has since grown to establish its position as the leading retailer of car parts, car enhancement, cycles and travel solutions in the UK. In this report the value of the company is evaluated on the basis of its current statutory accounts. In this report the alternative sources of finance available for the company are also discussed. The areas of corporate risk when raising finance, paying particular attention to funds available to the company are also discussed. Business valuation: A formal assessment of the value of a business using pre-determined and generally agreed upon formulas. Theres a range of ways to value a business. Valuations based on multiples of future earnings and the capitalisations of future cashflows are the most common. There are a number of common valuation methods: Asset based business valuation methods total up all the investments in the business. Asset-based business valuations can be done on a going concern or on a liquidation basis. Agoing concern asset-based approachdetermines the business net balance sheet value of its assets and subtracts the value of its liabilities. Aliquidation asset-based approachrepresents the net cash that would be received if all assets were sold and liabilities paid off. Earning value approaches Earning value business valuation methods are predicated on the idea that a businesss true value lies in its ability to produce wealth in the future. The most common earning value approach is about Capitalizing Past Earning. With this approach, a valuator determines an expected level of cash flow for the company using a companys record of past earnings, normalizes them for unusual revenue or expenses, and multiplies the expected normalized cash flows by a capitalization factor. The capitalization factor is a reflection of what rate of return a reasonable purchaser would expect on the investment, as well as a measure of the risk that the expected earnings will not be achieved. Discounted Future Earningsis another earning value approach to business valuation where instead of an average of past earnings, an average of the trend of predicted future earnings is used and divided by the capitalization factor. Market value approaches Market value approaches to business valuation attempt to establish the value of the business by comparing the business to similar businesses that have recently sold. Obviously, this method is only going to work well if there are a sufficient number of similar businesses to compare. Valuation of Halfords Using the Market Value approach: In the report the Halfords Company is going to be evaluated using the market value approach. Valuation Multiple A value, typically expressed as a factor, used to multiply a business economic benefit to arrive at the business value. Market-derived business valuation multiples Valuation multiplesderived from similar business sales are often used to estimate the likely selling price of a business. These multiples are calculated as ratios which relate some measure of business financial performance to its potential selling price. The most popularmultiplesare: Currant finance structure: Treasury policy The Groups Treasury Policy is structured to ensure that adequate financial resources are available for the development of its business whilst managing its currency, interest rate and counterparty credit risks. The Groups treasury strategy, policy and controls are approved by the Board. The main elements of treasury activity and associated risk are outlined below: Funding The treasury function arranges sufficient secure financial resources to enable the Group to meet its medium-term business objectives, whilst arranging facility maturities appropriate to its projected needs. The Group has a syndicated five-year term facility, maturing with a bullet repayment in July 2011, totalling Ã £300m of committed bank facilities, comprising a non-amortising term loan of Ã £180m and a revolving credit facility of Ã £120m, which, together with cash surpluses, provide adequate funding for the Groups operations. Counterparty credit risk The Group actively manages its relationships with a panel of high quality financial institutions. Credit risk is controlled by the treasury function setting counterparty credit limits by reference to published rating agency credit ratings and the Corporate Default Swap market. All such counterparties, which constitute the syndicated bank group, held at least an A credit rating at the time of the facility agreement. The Treasury Policy recognises that an exposure to a counterparty arises in relation to investments, derivatives and financial instruments. The Groups treasury departments main responsibilities are to: Ensure adequate funding and liquidity for the Group; Manage the interest risk of the Groups debt; Invest surplus cash; Manage the clearing bank operations of the Group; and Manage the foreign exchange risk on its non-sterling cash flows. The Groups debt management policy is to provide an appropriate level of funding to finance the Business Plan over the medium term at a competitive cost and ensure flexibility to meet the changing needs of the Group. The Group has a syndicated five-year term facility totalling Ã £300m that provides the Group with committed bank facilities until July 2011. The key risks that the Group faces from a treasury perspective are as follows: Financial risk The Business Plan and cash flow forecasts are subject to key assumptions such as interest rates and the significance of these risks is dependent upon the level of earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation and the strength of the balance sheet. Interest rate risk The Groups policy aims to manage the interest cost of the Group within the constraints of the Business Plan and its financial covenants. The Groups borrowings are currently subject to floating rate and the Group will continue to monitor movements in the swap market. Foreign currency risk The Group has a significant transaction exposure with increasing, direct source purchases of its supplies from the Far East, with most of the trade being in US dollars. The Groups policy is to manage the foreign exchange transaction exposures of the business to ensure the actual costs do not exceed the budget costs by 10% (excluding increases in the base cost of the product). The Group does not hedge either economic exposure or the translation exposure arising from the profits, assets and liabilities of non-sterling businesses whilst they remain immaterial. During the 53 weeks to 3 April 2009, the foreign exchange management policy was to hedge between 75% and 80% of the material foreign exchange transaction exposures on a rolling 15-18 month basis. Hedging is performed through the use of foreign currency bank accounts, spot rates and forward foreign exchange contracts. Credit risk The Groups policy is to minimise the risk that foreign exchange and interest rate derivative counterparties, the holders of surplus cash and the providers of debt will be unable to fulfil their obligations and also, in the case of lenders, unwilling to extend the loan facilities when they expire. The Group ensured that such counterparties used for credit transactions held at least an A credit rating at the time of syndication (July 2006). Ancillary business, in the main, is directed to the eight banks within the syndicated group. The Treasurer is responsible for determining creditworthiness of each counterparty, based on the overall financial strength of the counterparty. The counterparty credit risk is reviewed in the Treasury report, which is forwarded to the Treasury Committee and the Treasurer reviews credit exposure on a daily basis. Conclusion: Depending on the financial data provided by the Halfords Company the current financial stability of the company is successfully analyzed. References Annual report: Halfords PLC http://www.halfordscompany.com/hal/ir/fininfo/reports/ http://www.valuadder.com/glossary/valuation-multiplier.html http://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/costofcapital.asp http://www.lse.co.uk/shareprice.asp?shareprice=THTshare=thorntons_plc_ord_10p